Durham Green Book Destinations

Durham Green Book Destinations


Even before the recent Oscar win for the 2018 film Green Book, there's been a long overdue spike in interest about the actual directory the movie title references - The Negro Motorist Green Book, published for three decades starting in 1936 by a New York City postalworker named Victor Hugo Green. Well aware of the rich history of black-owned businesses in the Bull City - only a small fraction of which were ever featured in the Green Book - Open Durham is initiating a project to better document the sites listed here in our community.

The New York Public Library has helped spawn discussions like these around the country thanks to the nearly complete run of the original travel aides they have scanned and made available online (including the 1947 version excerpted above).  An excerpt from the 1949 edition's introduction that NYPL uses in its collection description is so poignant it deserves repeating here, even if the hope it expresses has yet to be fully realized:

Many of the places listed were in buildings long since lost to 'Urban Renewal'.  Many of the destinations described have had pages on Open Durham for a long time.  This tour is an effort to bring them all together in one place, to reproduce the geography of bias from our recent history in a new format, to reflect on the mechanisms of segregation in our home city and the strategies developed for navigating it, and ask readers to share recollections and experiences.

We hope to help raise awareness and appreciation for the few remaining structures and businesses that provided crucial shelter and services to travelers in need during the Jim Crow era.  We also hope to combine efforts and contribute to incredible work on this topic already being done by the North Carolina African American Heritage Commission.  If you haven't already, please check out their ongoing Oasis Spaces project (which was featured in a late February 2019 edition of The State of Things on public radio).

Check back for updates as we build out this digital Durham Green Book...

1502EPettigrew_050811.jpg

1502 EAST PETTIGREW STREET

1502
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Construction type: 
Neighborhood: 

 

Long-time grocery store and eatery along the south side of the railroad tracks in East Durham.  Listed as Catlett's Restaurant in Victor H. Green's The Negro Motorist Green Book guide for African American travelers in the 1947-1949 editions.  More recently used as a residential duplex.

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In tours

Last updated

  • Wed, 03/06/2019 - 7:33pm by gary

Location

United States
35° 58' 56.3628" N, 78° 53' 10.4568" W
US

Comments

1502
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Construction type: 
Neighborhood: 

 

 "Corner store at 11 p.m. Durham, North Carolina." Photo by Jack Delano, 1940. (Courtesy of Library of Congress - editing assistance from Ashley Coates) 

While it is unclear if the same structure has remained in place dating that far back, Sanborn maps from 1913 show a commercial structure of similar dimensions at this spot on East Pettigrew - for many years alternately known as Railroad Ave. while East Durham was considered a separate settlement.

 (Courtesy of Proquest Sanborn Maps, accessible online through Durham County Library and nclive.org)

Even as the usage of East Pettigrew to connote this further exstension of the road running along the south side of the tracks grew more consistent, more time would pass before regular street numbers extended beyond the 1300 block where it crossed Alston Avenue.  The 1921 city directory, for example, lists a Harvey D. Hopkins grocer at "E Pettigrew near Coal Chute, East Durham" - a reference to one of several historical names for the street alongside this building.  Coal Chute Alley clearly had some relation to the "Coal Platform" faintly labeled at the top of the above map, though the name Clyde Alley is substituted for the same unpaved road.  Eventually this would come to be known as Sowell Alley and then Sowell Street, taking the name of a family that had long lived in the area.

Though markings on the 1913 Sanborn suggest this may already have been the case, directories first suggest the building was divided into two units (1502 and 1502 1/2) in 1926, when an African American tobacco worker named Rosa Mack was listed as residing in the side apartment.  Using first an asterisk and then the annotation "(c)" to help Jim Crow-era Durhamites identify the race of those associated with its listings, the city directory specifies this as a black-owned grocery by 1930, when it was the store and apparent residence of an Arguster Petteway.

The turnover in names and ownership in subsequent years is remarkable, with Milton J. McNeill selling "soft drinks" in 1935, replaced by a "Wm Brewington (c), grocer" before 1939 - all identified as African American.  If the ever-changing listings are to be believed, at the time of Frank Delano's late-night stopover in 1940, Pearl Tyson was running the shop, while residing just a few doors down at 1510 East Pettigrew. "Corner store at 11 p.m. Durham, North Carolina." Photo by Jack Delano, 1940. (Courtesy of Library of Congress - editing assistance from Ashley Coates)

A lower resolution version of this photo foundered in Open Durham's Mystery Photo series for the better part of a decade, but thanks to upgrades in the Library of Congress digital collection and some research in early 2019, this location was finally established.

1502 East Pettigrew is the address given for Catlett's Restaurant in Victor H. Green's The Negro Motorist Green Book​ guide for African American travelers in the 1947-1949 editions. These were annually published aides for navigating Jim Crow America while on business trips and vacations.  Within its pages, readers could find entries – listed by state and city – for restaurants, lodging, gas stations, beauty parlors and barber shops, and other service providers, such as tailors, who would gladly take their business in an otherwise potentially unfamiliar and hostile environment.

 (Courtesy of New York Public Library Digital Collections, which is home to a nearly complete collection of The Green Book. For more on Green Book sites in Durham, see the Open Durham tour page currently being assembled.)

Discrepancies between the Green Book - published in New York City - and the fate of black-owned or deliberately desegregated businesses in towns across rapidly changing postwar America were inevitable, and its printers even included a disclaimer in the opening pages.  While they did their best to keep listings updated, they were relying on feedback from around the country under very different conditions for communication than we know today. 

In Durham, only the 1947 phonebook lists the restaurant apparently alluded to in The Green Book, mispelling it as Cattle's (not likely to have been a popular eatery's actual name).  By 1948, inquiring Durhamites were told by the local reference that this was Brown's Cafe - apparently, if briefly, owned by Stokesdale resident and tobacco worker Clyde S. Brown.  The next year it would be rebranded once more, as a restaurant run by W. Jack Mitchell - proprietor of Mitchell's Snack Bar (later renamed Two Spot) and Royal Music at 805-807 Fayetteville Street.  Never listed locally before or after 1947, Catlett's appears to have been a short-lived venture. 

The point is not that the Green Book was 'wrong' in Durham - indeed, for the years Catlett's was listed, motorists in search of a meal would likely have appreciated a friendly place to stop regardless of the name on the sign - but to add to its story the difficulty of tracking even the small handful of friendly businesses it featured across such a huge geography.  The oft-changing face of 1502 East Pettigrew also hints at the difficulties of creating and maintaining black-owned business in segregated Durham.

Nevertheless, this location continued to play host to a succession of food-related businesses - the Silver Moon Grille through much of the late 1950s, into the 1960s.

At some point thereafter, however, this property seems to have been folded into others owned by descendants of the Glenn Coal Company which operated from platforms between this part of East Pettigrew and the railway.  It ceased to have a commercial function by the time it was passed from a Glenn family estate to its current owners in the 1980s, and appears to have been altered to accomodate its use as a residential duplex.

1502EPettigrew_050811.jpg1502 East Pettigrew Street, 05.08.11

As is clear from the timeline on Google Street View, the entries and windows facing Pettigrew have gone through phases of transformation, boarding, and unboarding in recent years.  The property does not appear to be inhabited as of spring 2019.

 (N. Levy, 03.04.2019 - looking southeast, with the corner of the former Ebenezer Baptist Church in the distance down Sowell Street at the right edge)

This building was the subject of a What's It Wednesday?! post on Open Durham's social media accounts (Facebook and Instagram), the week of February 27, 2019.  Follow us and stay tuned for more finds!

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/sites/default/files/images/2008_11/809Fayetteville_1962.jpgDeShazor's_color_SE.jpeg/sites/default/files/images/2008_11/hayti_fromNCM_1970.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2008_11/809Fayetteville_demo_1960s.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2008_11/809Fayetteville_demolition.jpg

DESHAZOR'S BEAUTY COLLEGE / 809 FAYETTEVILLE ST.

809
,
Durham
NC
Built in
late 1920s or early 1930s
/ Demolished in
1968-1972
Construction type: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 

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Last updated

  • Wed, 01/02/2013 - 2:45pm by gary

Location

35° 59' 7.764" N, 78° 53' 51.3852" W

Comments

809
,
Durham
NC
Built in
late 1920s or early 1930s
/ Demolished in
1968-1972
Construction type: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 

 


809 Fayetteville, 1962.
(Courtesy Durham County Library / North Carolina Collection)

It appears that the building at 809 Fayetteville St. was built in the late 1920s or early 1930s by the Royal Knights of King David. The RKKD had previously been located at 702-704 Fayetteville St. The building had first floor retail bays and multiple offices upstairs, occupied by various professionals.

The building became most well known for its occupancy by DeShazor's Beauty College, owned and operated by 'Madam' Jacqueline DeShazor. Ms. DeShazor originally came to Durham from Brooklyn, NY, and appears to have opened her beauty college by 1936. The business was quite successful, and she purchased the building in 1945 for ,000.

From "Negro Durham Marches On" - 1949.
(Courtesy Durham County Library / North Carolina Collection)

DeShazor's was persevering in the late 1960s as the surrounding area was being torn down.
DeShazor's_color_SE.jpeg
Looking southeast, late 1960s.
(Courtesy Durham County Library / North Carolina Collection)


View of a few remnants of Hayti from the North Carolina Mutual Building on W. Chapel Hill St., circa 1970. 809 Fayetteville can be seen to the right, behind the wing extending to the right of St. Joseph's AME.
(Courtesy The Herald-Sun Newspaper)

Sometime between 1968 and 1972, the building was destroyed.


809 Fayetteville
(Courtesy Durham County Library / North Carolina Collection)


809 Fayetteville.
(Courtesy Durham County Library / North Carolina Collection)

DeShazor's appears to have moved downtown after urban renewal, located at 108 East Main St. in the 1980s, and later somewhere on Parrish St.

I believe the original location of DeShazor's was converted initially to part of 'Tin City' - the derisive name given to the temporary relocation sheds set up by the Relocation Authority (charged during urban renewal with relocating businesses displaced by urban renewal.) By the 1980s, most of Tin City was gone (one building remains) and the area was redeveloped as housing.


Site of 809 Fayetteville, 10.05.08

Find this spot on a Google Map.

35.985400 -78.897600

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JONES HOTEL

502
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
pre-1907
/ Demolished in
late 1960s
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 

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Last updated

  • Sun, 10/16/2011 - 12:20am by gary

Location

United States
35° 59' 23.604" N, 78° 53' 54.7548" W
US

Comments

502
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
pre-1907
/ Demolished in
late 1960s
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 

 


502 Ramsey St.
(Courtesy Duke Rare Book and Manuscript Collection / Scanned by Digital Durham)

The Jones Hotel, one of the two early hotels of Hayti (the other being the Warren Hotel on Proctor St.) was established sometime prior to 1907, and was run by Ms. Josie L. Jones.

There is no history that I can find with regard to the hotel. By the 1940s, it appears to have been out of business, and its signature double front porch gone.


Above, an aerial picture (mid-1940s) showing several locations I'm posting on this week.

Yellow - Original Lincoln Hospital
Red - Site of original Whitted School / Park
Orange - Berry Company
Green - Jones Hotel
Blue - Original Mt. Vernon Baptist Church

(Original photo courtesy The Herald-Sun Newspaper)

By 1965, when it was being sized up by the Redevelopment Commission for demolition and eminent domain via urban renewal, it was barely recognizable.


502 Ramsey St., 1965.
(Courtesy Durham County Library / North Carolina Collection)

This land sat abandoned for many years after being plowed under in the late 1960s. In 1993, it was redeveloped as Rick Hendrick Chevrolet. The site of the Jones Hotel is now part of their parking lot.


Site of the Jones Hotel, 11.15.08

Find this spot on a Google Map.

35.989894 -78.898613

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/sites/default/files/images/2008_9/Biltmore_PC.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2008_9/Regal_Biltmore_SE_1920s.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2008_9/Biltmore_PC.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2008_9/Biltmore_Regal_Donut_1940s.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2008_9/Biltmore_1950s.jpg

BILTMORE HOTEL/GRILL/DRUGSTORE

330-332
,
Durham
NC
Built in
1929
/ Demolished in
1977
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
,
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 
,

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In tours

Last updated

  • Fri, 10/27/2017 - 12:28pm by gary

Location

35° 59' 28.716" N, 78° 53' 53.3904" W

Comments

330-332
,
Durham
NC
Built in
1929
/ Demolished in
1977
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
,
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 
,

 


Looking southeast at the Regal Theater and the Biltmore, 1946
(Courtesy The Herald-Sun Newspaper)

Although Dorothy Phelps' book opines the the Biltmore Hotel was built in 1923 by Dr. Clyde Donnell, it seems likely, based on the city directories, that the hotel was built in ~1929. Dr. Donnell's 1951 biography makes copious mention of his various endeavors, but no mention of the Biltmore - an unlikely omission. So the beginnings of the Biltmore are a bit unclear, but it was decidedly the pre-eminent hotel in Hayti, and in the segregated era, one of the pre-eminent hotels catering to African-Americans in the southeast.


Biltmore Hotel, likely 1930s.
(Courtesy John Schelp)

Another version of this postcard has writing on the right side of the card which reads:

"The Biltmore Hotel, Durham, NC. Half block from Union Station. America's Finest Colored Hotel. All out side [sic] rooms. Running hot and cold water in each room. The last word in comfort. 'Do It the Biltmore Way'. Atlas Barbee, Manager."

Ms. Phelps describes the typical scene at the Biltmore:

"Artists, educators, and just visitors who came to see the 'big name bands' and Hayti would stay at this 30 room hotel when they came to town. 'It was the only such facility opened to Negroes,' according to Amelia Thorpe. 'Children would gather near the Biltmore to gape at the buses and famous people.'"

The Biltmore featured a drugstore and grill/coffee shop on the ground floor (the drugstore to the left when facing the front of the building, and the grill/coffee shop to the right.)


Biltmore, Regal Theater, and the Donut Shop, 1940s.

In the 1940s, the hotel was managed by Lathrop 'Lath' Alston and James Baylor; in 1944, Lath Alston purchased the hotel with Pedro Ward, who ran the dining room. Alston described the hotel as:

"one of the largest institutions of its kind in the South, catering exclusively to Negro patrons. It has twenty rooms with ample baths, a dining room serving an unexcelled cuisine and is operated on the European plan. Mr. Alston is a well and favorably known promoter of musicals, bands, etc. He enjoys a reputation as one of the big-time dance promoters in the South."
(I tend to believe the 20 room description rather than the 30 room further above.)

Below, an excerpt from "Negro Durham Marches On" about the Biltmore - 1949.

(Courtesy Durham County Library / North Carolina Collection)

And a brief bit of film on East Pettigrew, looking west towards the Biltmore ~1947.

York Garrett was running the Biltmore Drugstore by the 1940s, which was renamed "Garrett's Biltmore Drugstore."


Looking southwest, 1950s.

Hayti began to fade over the course of the 1950s; the progressive end of segregation meant less exclusive patronage of Hayti stores and businesses, and visitors to town could stay at hotels outside of Hayti. The general economic flight of the 1960s affected the African-American community as well as the white community. Those with means to do so began to move to suburban areas.

The language to describe Hayti in the 1950s is remarkably similar to the language used to describe structures in our historic neighborhoods today - 'blighted' 'obsolete' structures. The "What Is Urban Renewal?" public information pamphlet from ~1960 describes urban renewal as follows:

"1) The use of code enforcement and public improvements in order to prevent good areas from becoming blighted. 2) The removal of spots of blight and the rehabilitation of structures that can be saved. 3) The clearance and redevelopment of slum areas that cannot be saved."

Should sound familiar to those who follow the policies of our city administration.

Views of Hayti from the 1960s do not show a thriving area, but rather an area that was beginning to see economic difficulty - beautiful structures like the Biltmore looking more faded than fashionable.


Looking west on East Pettigrew Street, late 1960s.
(Courtesy Durham County Library / North Carolina Collection)

Structures to the east of Ramsey Street were torn down by the late 1960s. The Biltmore and surrounding buildings survived into the 1970s.


Biltmore and surrounding structures, early 1970s.

The use of the Biltmore seems to have, um, declined a bit by the 1970s. To recount the story one local told me.

"In the early 1970s, I was working to erect the radio tower for WAFR radio in a building two doors down from the Biltmore [ed note: WAFR was in the Donut Shop building]. We got permission from Dr. Garrett to tie our tower guy wire to the roof of the Biltmore Hotel."

"We went into the hotel and went upstairs - and it became very clear that we were in a whorehouse. Prostitutes, all white, were on the beds of the rooms, wearing only negligées, and there were several very large Black men who were looking at us as if to say 'what the hell are you doing here?'"

"I was 23 years old, and had never encountered anything like this before. We had to go back every day for two weeks and go through the rooms to get to the roof ladder, which was in the closet of one of the rooms."

Soon the Regal and the Donut shop buildings had been demolished, and the Biltmore was one of a few survivors.


Mid-1970s view of the Biltmore. The drugstore remains open while the hotel is boarded up.

1977 (Photo by George Pyne via Milo Pyne)


January 1977 view of the Biltmore from across the railroad tracks. Joel Kostyu wrote, in a rather odd passage accompanying this picture

"Biltmore Hotel reflects the change in the integrated south. Separate black hotels are no longer needed, so the old Biltmore will be demolished. It is reported that it will be torn down brick by brick and that these bricks will be cleaned by unemployed youth and resold." (From "Durham: a Pictorial History" by J. Kostyu)

Great. Wonder how that worked out?

The Biltmore was torn down in 1977. The spot has been some form of parking lot since that time.


Looking south at the site of the Biltmore, 09.04.08. (G. Kueber) The building extended from approximately the middle of the driveway left to the fire hydrant (notice the fire hydrant in the historical photos.)
 

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/sites/default/files/images/2008_11/719Fayetteville_1965.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2008_11/elvirasblue_801Fay_ticket.jpg801Fayetteville_1062.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2008_11/719Fayetteville_1960s.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2008_11/801Fayetteville_100508.jpg

801 FAYETTEVILLE ST.

801
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
late 1920s
/ Demolished in
early 1970s
Construction type: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 

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Last updated

  • Wed, 01/02/2013 - 2:43pm by gary

Location

35° 59' 8.8656" N, 78° 53' 51.1368" W

Comments

801
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
late 1920s
/ Demolished in
early 1970s
Construction type: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 

 

801 Fayetteville (not on a corner - the change from 700 to 800 occurred where St. Joseph St. intersected but did not cross Fayetteville) was built in the late 1920s, and initially housed Malone's Cafe. By the 1940s, it housed Elvira's Blue Tavern, before that establishment moved to its Pettigrew St. location in the late 1940s.


(Courtesy Robby Delius)

The building was vacant in the early 1950s, and housed William's Beauty Salon by the mid-1950s. By 1959, the building house Joseph Campbell's dentist office.

801Fayetteville_1062.jpg

10.62

When the buildings around it were demolished ~1968, 801 remained.


Looking southeast, early 1970s.

It appears to have been torn down by 1974.


Looking southeast, 10.05.08

Find this spot on a Google Map.

35.985796 -78.897538

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400 EAST PETTIGREW

400
,
Durham
NC
Built in
1939-1940
/ Demolished in
early 1980s
Neighborhood: 
Type: 

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Last updated

  • Tue, 12/23/2014 - 10:32am by gary

Location

35° 59' 28.3164" N, 78° 53' 53.2824" W

Comments

400
,
Durham
NC
Built in
1939-1940
/ Demolished in
early 1980s
Neighborhood: 
Type: 

 


(Courtesy The Herald Sun)

400 East Pettigrew appears to have been built around 1939-1940 as a two-bay retail space. The building housed a series of tenants over the course of ~40 years, beginning with the Dixie Cab Co., followed by the Congo Restaurant through the 1940s. By the 1950s, the building housed Best Seafood/Lee's Seafood and the Silver Drop Restaurant.

The early 1960s saw the building house the Cox Barber Shop and the Silver Drop; by the late 1960s, the Silver Drop had been replaced by Papa Jack's Cut Rate Six Pack.

Circa 1960s match book cover.

PapaJack's_1970_0.jpeg
400 E. Pettigrew, ~1970.

The building persisted longer than most of the others around it, persisting into the late 1970s after the adjacent Biltmore Hotel was gone.


Looking southeast at 400 East Pettigrew, late 1970s.

By the early 1980s, it appears that the building was demolished. It remained vacant, overgrown land until being converted into a gravel parking lot by Rick Hendrick's Chevrolet a few years ago.


Looking south, 09.04.08.

35.991199 -78.898134

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120Smangum_0166.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2007_3/carrington_1880.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2007_3/carrington.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2007_3/100SMangum_1920s.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2007_3/100SMangum_close.jpg

120 SOUTH MANGUM STREET

120
,
Durham
NC
Built in
1930-1940
/ Demolished in
1968-1970
Construction type: 
,
Neighborhood: 
Type: 

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Last updated

  • Sun, 01/11/2015 - 11:11am by gary

Location

35° 59' 40.3692" N, 78° 54' 4.3812" W

Comments

120
,
Durham
NC
Built in
1930-1940
/ Demolished in
1968-1970
Construction type: 
,
Neighborhood: 
Type: 

 

120Smangum_0166.jpg

120 South Mangum Street, 01.66

Durham's often-noted rough-around-the-edges reputation is nothing new - in the mid-to-late 19th century, the town was well known for its multiple saloons - the place where students from the University of North Carolina would come for some less-than-genteel entertainment (many of them would disembark from the train in Durham and head onward to Chapel Hill by other means.)

The Carrington bar, located at the northwest corner of S. Mangum and Peabody (now Ramseur), was one of these early establishments. This picture, from the 1880s, looking northwest, shows the Hotel Claiborn in the background.

By 1902, the Women's Christian Temperance Union had succeeded in prodding the city to pass prohibition, and the saloons were no more.

Below, Same view of the former Carrington Bar, looking a bit worse for wear, with the Durham Silk Hoisery Mill in the background, likely early 1920s. Note how close these structures were to the railroad tracks - Peabody St. did run sporadically between the tracks and buildings north of the tracks, but it was no more than a small-ish two-lane street.


(Courtesy Duke Archives)

By the later 1920s, the old bar had been renovated, and we see the other commercial structures between the bar and Main St., including the back of the Sneed-Markham-Taylor building, profiled yesterday.


(Courtesy Durham County Library)

And I felt the need to blow up this shot more to show two things: one, the awesome snake, and two, the 2-story commercial structure at the right, just behind the SMT building. The writing surrounding the windows on the second floor looks oddly like hieroglyphics to me from this angle - but I can make out "Tailoring".


(Courtesy Durham County Library)

The building at 120 South Mangum was likely built around 1930-1935. In later years, it was the Hayes and Sons Market. Sonny's shoe and clothing store took up 1/2 a bay of 120 S. Mangum and all of 118 S. Mangum.

Below, the other buildings to the south of the Lincoln Cafe. The Silk Hosiery Mills Building looms behind them.


Looking northwest from Peabody (now Ramseur), 1963.

Circa 1960s match book cover.

120SMangum_1960s.jpg

The empty 120 S. Mangum, late 1960s.

These buildings were taken by Urban Renewal and demolished for the Loop and surface parking.


Looking northwest from Ramseur and Mangum, 2007. (G. Kueber)

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711 FAYETTEVILLE

711
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1920s
/ Demolished in
~1974
Neighborhood: 
Type: 

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Last updated

  • Wed, 01/02/2013 - 2:43pm by gary

Location

35° 59' 9.546" N, 78° 53' 50.6724" W

Comments

711
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1920s
/ Demolished in
~1974
Neighborhood: 
Type: 

 


711 Fayetteville, mid 1920s
(Courtesy Duke Rare Book and Manuscript Collection / Scanned by Digital Durham)

711 Fayetteville appears to have been built in the mid-1920s as the office of surgeon John WV Cordice. Dr. Cordice appears to have practiced at this location for over 30 years, until his death on May 2, 1958; he is buried in Beechwood Cemetery. He also served as a surgery attending physician at Lincoln Hospital. From the 1930s, the building also housed the Friendly City Barber Shop - initially at 711 1/2. It appears that by the 1940s, the two had switched places - with Dr. Cordice at 711 1/2 and the barber shop at 711.

After Dr. John Cordice's death, Dr. Norman Cordice (DDS) took over his space - I'm unsure as to what relation they were to one another. Norman Cordice was born in 1894 and died in 1987.


711 Fayetteville, 1962.
(Courtesy Durham County Library / North Carolina Collection)

Around 1970, these businesses left and were replaced briefly by "Project Outreach" and the Durham Business and Professional Chain, an organization that had served since 1938 as what I would refer to as a Chamber of Commerce for Hayti and the African-American community.

By 1974, this building was gone. Its site is presently the front yard of a ~1980s house.


Site of 711 Fayetteville, 10.05.08

Find this spot on a Google Map.

35.985985,-78.897409

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/sites/default/files/images/2009_8/graniteservicestation_pcard.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2009_8/westdurhammethodist_original.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2009_8/WestDurhamMethodist_NW_1907.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2009_8/graniteservicestation_pcard.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2009_8/graniteservice_BE_1950.jpg

GRANITE SERVICE STATION

1922
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1927-1936
/ Demolished in
1950-1958
Construction type: 
,
Neighborhood: 
Type: 

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Last updated

  • Sat, 08/20/2011 - 5:17pm by gary

Location

36° 0' 24.3432" N, 78° 55' 19.02" W

Comments

1922
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1927-1936
/ Demolished in
1950-1958
Construction type: 
,
Neighborhood: 
Type: 

 

 

Per the Old West Durham website, Reuben Hibberd, a local florist and lay preacher, began holding cottage prayer meetings and "Sunday Sings" in West Durham homes in 1893. Hibberd would often bring a small portable organ with him.

As interest increased in Hibberd's meetings, the Sunday School was moved to a grandstand in the nearby Erwin Ballfield. During an 1894 revival in the grandstand, the West Durham Methodist Church was chartered.

In 1896, Ben Duke donated land to the west of the Erwin Ballfield, at the corner of Main St. and 9th St., across from the Erwin company store. A small wood frame chapel was built on the site, facing 9th Street.


West Durham Methodist chapel, 1896.
(Courtesy Old West Durham)

By 1907, a larger frame church structure had been added to the south of the original chapel.


West Durham Methodist Episcopal Church, looking northwest from West Main St. near the corner of West Main and 9th St., 1907. You can see the company store and Erwin Mill in the background.
(Courtesy Durham County Library / North Carolina Collection)

In 1927, the church moved to West Markham Avenue, where it would change its name to Asbury Methodist in 1944.

The original Methodist church was torn down, and the Granite Service Station was built on a small corner of the original church site.


Granite Service Station, with St. Joseph's in the background, likely 1940s.
(Courtesy John Schelp)


Bird's Eye view of the Granite Service Station, looking east, ~1950 with St. Joseph's and the Erwin Ballfield in the background.
(Courtesy Durham County Library / North Carolina Collection)

In the mid-1950s, the original service station was torn down and replaced by a 'modern' service station, which I believe was a Gulf station. An additional commercial structure (now a Kinko's) was built to the north of the gas station, on the remainder of the former church site around 1959; it originally was a Glidden Paint Company store.


Kinko's, 04.05.09.

Several years ago, the gas station became a Family Fare BP/Amoco/whatever - part of the MM Fowler Family Fare Durham gas empire, which owns three of my favorite neglected historic structures: Catsburg, the Old Gulf Station at Geer and Foster, and the fantastic old service station at Angier and Guthrie. It's something I certainly think about when running low on gas.


Family Fare BP Station, 04.05.09

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36.006762,-78.92195

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400_402Roxboro_1966.jpg

400-402 SOUTH ROXBORO STREET / PINE STREET

400-402
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1920-1935
/ Demolished in
1966-1970
Construction type: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 

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In tours

Last updated

  • Thu, 01/12/2012 - 4:15pm by gary

Location

United States
35° 59' 28.6368" N, 78° 54' 1.404" W
US

Comments

400-402
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1920-1935
/ Demolished in
1966-1970
Construction type: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 

 

400_402Roxboro_1966.jpg

1966

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/sites/default/files/images/2008_9/500EPettigrew_S_1940.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2008_9/534-540EPettigrew.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2008_9/520-30EPettigrew_SW.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2008_9/538-540EastPettigrew_090408.jpg

538-540 EAST PETTIGREW

538-540
,
Durham
NC
Built in
1920-1940
/ Demolished in
1970-1972
Construction type: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 

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Last updated

  • Wed, 08/17/2011 - 10:44am by gary

Location

35° 59' 18.9456" N, 78° 53' 48.66" W

Comments

538-540
,
Durham
NC
Built in
1920-1940
/ Demolished in
1970-1972
Construction type: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 

 


(Courtesy State of North Carolina Archives)

Block of East Pettigrew between Henry Alley (intersecting street on the right) and Cozart St. (intersecting street next to Speight's service station, on the left) - ~1940s. 538-540 is the mid-block two-story structure and the adjoining brick-storefront-in-front-of-a-wood-frame-house.

538-540 was created from an earlier vintage house (at 540) which was linked by a single story storefront with an adjoining two story commercial structure.

540 East Pettigrew housed the Baldwin Furniture Exchange from 1929 onward. The business was started by David and Ellen Baldwin, and initially located at 516 East Pettigrew Street (from 1927 to 1929.) In 1951, the store was noted to "have a large warehouse, fully stocked with the latest in furniture." Mr. Baldwin and his wife lived on a 159 acre farm on Old Oxford Highway, and are featured in "Negro Durham Marches On" riding horses.

538, built in 1938, housed the Royal Dry Cleaners. These businesses remained stable at these locations until 1968, when the Royal Cleaners closed, and appears to have been replaced briefly by the Boston Beanery restaurant.


(Courtesy Durham County Library / North Carolina Collection)


A long shot looking west down the block, ~1970
(Courtesy Durham County Library / North Carolina Collection)

By ~1970, the structure(s) had been demolished. It has remained vacant land since that time.


Site of 538-540 East Pettigrew, 09.04.08

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35.988596 -78.89685

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/sites/default/files/images/2008_9/414-416EPettigrew.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2008_9/bullcitybarber_oldinterior.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2008_9/bullcitybarbershop_interior.JPG/sites/default/files/images/2008_9/BullCityBarber_andEast_1960s.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2008_9/bullcitybarber_090408.jpg

412 EAST PETTIGREW

412
,
Durham
NC
Built in
1928
/ Demolished in
1977
Construction type: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 
,

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In tours

Last updated

  • Wed, 08/17/2011 - 9:36am by jwood

Location

35° 59' 26.7504" N, 78° 53' 52.5264" W

Comments

412
,
Durham
NC
Built in
1928
/ Demolished in
1977
Construction type: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 
,

 


1920s view showing part of 408-412 on the right.
(Courtesy Durham County Library / North Carolina Collection)

408-412 East Pettigrew was a multi-tenant commercial building built in 1928 by G.P. Holloway. He established the Bull City Barber Shop in the 410 E. Pettigrew bay that same year. Bull City Cafe occupied the 412 E. Pettigrew bay.


Early interior of the Bull City Barber Shop
(Courtesy Ronald Bryant)

In 1946, Mr. Holloway partnered with AC Artis, who had been the proprietor of the Friendly City Barber Shop, to open the Bull City Barber College in the 408 E. Pettigrew bay. Per a 1951 writeup, the college:

"is equipped to accommodate 30 students, being staffed by expert instructors, with 20 chairs. The college is approved by the State Board of Barber Examiners and the V.A., and is the only Negro Barber School in North Carolina approved by the National Association of Master Barbers and Beauticians."


(Courtesy Durham County Library / North Carolina Collection)

It appears that, by 1948, the building also housed apartments on the upper floors, known as "The Ritz Apartments."

The Barber College appears to have folded by the 1960s, as did the apartments, although the Bull City Barber Shop remained open. 408 E. Pettigrew was occupied by the Bull City Shoe Shine Parlor briefly during the 1960s.


Looking southwest, ~1970.
(Courtesy Durham County Library / North Carolina Collection)

The barber shop persisted until the building was demolished in 1977. It is now a gravel parking lot for Rick Hendrick Chevrolet.


Looking southwest at the site of 408-412 East Pettigrew.

35.990764 -78.897924

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1306Fayetteville.JPG

1306 FAYETTEVILLE STREET – COLLEGE INN

1306
,
Durham
NC
Built in
1935
Construction type: 
Local historic district: 
National Register: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 
,

This one-story, front-gabled commercial building has a three-bay aluminum storefront with a door flanked by large picture windows. A grocer and blacksmith are listed at this address as early as 1925; however, the current building was likely constructed around 1935. The College Inn (confectioners and restaurant) was listed here from 1935 through 1950. It is currently the New Visions of Africa restaurant.

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Location

United States
35° 58' 51.186" N, 78° 53' 58.8084" W
US

Comments

1306
,
Durham
NC
Built in
1935
Construction type: 
Local historic district: 
National Register: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 
,

 

1306Fayetteville.JPG

This one-story, front-gabled commercial building has a three-bay aluminum storefront with a door flanked by large picture windows. The building has a brick veneer with vinyl siding in the front gable and vinyl trim. The shed-roofed front porch is supported by large decorative metal braces and shelters a terra cotta-covered stoop. A picture window remains toward the front of the south elevation; the corresponding window on the north elevation has been bricked-in. There are small windows toward the rear of the side elevations and a full-width, shed-roofed rear ell. A grocer and blacksmith are listed at this address as early as 1925; however, the current building was likely constructed around 1935. The College Inn (confectioners and restaurant) was listed here from 1935 through 1950. It is currently the New Visions of Africa restaurant.

The College Inn was listed in Victo Hugo Green's Green Book between 1948-1963.  The Green Book was an African American traveler’s annual guide for navigating Jim Crow America while on business trips and vacations.  Within its pages, readers could find entries – listed by city – for restaurants, lodging, gas stations, beauty parlors and barber shops, and other service providers, such as tailors, who would gladly take their business in an otherwise potentially unfamiliar and hostile environment.

https://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/9c454830-83b9-0132-d56a-58d385a7b928#/?uuid=a158c550-83b9-0132-6661-58d385a7b928

 

 

 

 

 

 

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/sites/default/files/images/2008_11/1005Fayetteville_1962.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2008_11/1005Fayetteville_100508.jpg

1005 FAYETTEVILLE - JOHN O'DANIEL HOUSE

1005
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
People: 
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 

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In tours

Last updated

  • Wed, 01/02/2013 - 2:45pm by gary

Location

35° 59' 1.1652" N, 78° 53' 53.574" W

Comments

1005
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
People: 
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 

 


(Courtesy Durham County Library / North Carolina Collection)

Occupying the entire 'block' between Banks Alley and Cart Place, the house at 1005 Fayetteville St. was built by John O'Daniel.

O'Daniel has been enslaved by the Carr family prior to the civil war. Although it has never been proven, he was reputed to be a half-brother to Julian Carr. Regardless, Carr certainly held O'Daniel in higher esteem than one might expect, given their previous relationship. O'Daniel seems to have become a 'right-hand man' to Carr over the course of the later 19th and early 20th century.

In 1877, O'Daniel acquired the land at 1005 Fayetteville St. and was therefore one of the earliest African-American landowners in Hayti. His relative economic well-being seems evidenced by the size of the house he was able to construct, and his contributions to the construction of St. Joseph's AME

O'Daniel most notably became head of recruitment and manager for the Durham Hosiery Mill No. 2 on East Pettigrew St. - Carr's 'experiment' with African-American machine operators/employees.

O'Daniel died in 1919; that Carr had some respect and affection for O'Daniel seems proven by his naming of the former Bowling-Emory Hosiery Mill on Gilbert St. after O'Daniel when he purchased the mill shortly after O'Daniel's death.

O'Daniel's family continued to live at 1005 Fayetteville after his death - another John O'Daniel, perhaps a son, is listed as a "Florist" living at the house in the 1920s.

By the 1940s, the house was no longer occupied by the O'Daniel family. A series of other occupants ensued. The unrelated last names and short tenure imply to me that the house was rented through must of the mid-20th century.

The house was demolished by 1965. It was converted into part of the housing project, now abandoned and awaiting unclear redevelopment by Campus Apartments, Inc.


Site of 1005 Fayetteville, 10.05.08

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35.983811,-78.898259

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902 FAYETTEVILLE

902
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1954-1957
Construction type: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 

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In tours

Last updated

  • Wed, 01/02/2013 - 2:45pm by jwood

Location

35° 59' 5.136" N, 78° 53' 53.7" W

Comments

902
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1954-1957
Construction type: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 

 


904 and part of 902 Fayetteville St., 1962.
(Courtesy Durham County Library / North Carolina Collection)

The above picture most clearly shows 904 Fayetteville St., a commercial structure built in the late 1940s or early 1950s as a grocery store; it originally housed the Cut Rate Super Market, and, by the 1960s, Quality Foods Super Market.

To its right in the above picture is a partial view of the ABC Store, built between 1954 and 1957.

The supermarket building appears to have still been in existence by the mid-1970s. I'm not sure when it was demolished. Surprisingly to me, the ABC store is still here. Although its entrance has been shifted to the former back of the store, to face the 'new' Fayetteville St., the original facade (minus the lettering) remains. It is thus the only structure other than St. Joseph's on 'old' Fayetteville St. to survive urban renewal.


Site of 904 and the still-extant 902 Fayetteville St., 10.05.08

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35.98476 -78.89825

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909 FAYETTEVILLE STREET

909
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1890-1920
/ Demolished in
1965
Construction type: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 

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In tours

Last updated

  • Wed, 01/02/2013 - 2:45pm by gary

Location

35° 59' 3.354" N, 78° 53' 52.8396" W

Comments

909
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1890-1920
/ Demolished in
1965
Construction type: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 

 

Between Banks Place and Fowler Ave. was another residential block of Fayetteville St., occupied by 909, 911, and 1003 Fayetteville.


909 Fayetteville, 1962
(Courtesy Durham County Library / North Carolina Collection)

These houses were torn down by 1965, and replaced with part of "Tin City" - the relocation buildings built for displaced Hayti Businesses. This building, modified, still exists, and houses The Carolina Times, which actually does still publish.


Looking southeast, 10.05.08

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35.984242 -78.898109

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