Milburn and Heister's Durham Buildings

Milburn and Heister's Durham Buildings


Over the past few years I've become quite intrigued by architect Frank Milburn, a prolific mid-Atlantic/southeastern architect who, nearly-anonymously (at least in contemporary terms,) might have been preeminent architect of the New South during the 1890s-1920s. Despite this prominence, he seems nearly forgotten. There have been two scholarly articles examining the work of Milburn (with and without his partner Michael Heister.) One is a 1973 article by Lawrence Wodehouse, which provided a good rejuvenation of Milburn's existence, even though the parts that most interested me - a list of Milburn's structures in Durham, seems riddled with errors. The other, more recent article appeared in Winterthur Portfolio in 2005, by Daniel Vivian. It's an excellent article - if you have academic access to such things, I recommend it highly ("The Practical Architect.") Aside from the Durham-specific view, I have little to add to the overall analysis of Milburn's career and legacy - since it is not publicly available, I will try to summarize the essence of it.

Both Wodehouse and Vivian continue the image rehabilitation of southern commercial / institutional architecture, which was often eschewed by the architecture establishment for reasons that had less to do with architecture than with disdain for all-things-southern, and a certain view of New South cities as crass upstarts and Old South cities as permanently antebellum relics. Thus the enduring image of southern architecture became the 19th century plantation house, feeding (from the point of view of someone who grew up in the deep south) northerners' odd-but-persistent fascination/obsession with the 'romanticism' of the 'Old South.' (Witness the enormous popularity of the cinematically progressive and humanly regressive Birth of a Nation - which, with its incredibly offensive storyline about the scourge of free African-Americans, and the sanctity of the Klan - remained the highest grossing film of all time from 1915 to 1921, and the slightly more subtle Gone With the Wind, which held the box office record for 34 years, until being displaced by, ahem, "The Exorcist.") Unfortunately, the ignorance of the establishment helped contribute to the ultimate devaluation of much southern commercial/institutional architecture, and its eventual destruction.

By the 1880s, New South cities such as Durham, Atlanta, and Charlotte, as well as Old South cities such as Charleston, Savannah and New Orleans, had begun to recover enough from the war and reconstruction to build / rebuild new economies. The demand for new courthouses, banks, train stations, schools, office buildings, theaters, and the like meant ready commissions for architects - the fits and starts with which much of the southern economy grew meant that private-sector work was not always steady or predictable.

I'll quote Vivian on the early development of Milburn's career:

Milburn was born December 12, 1868, in Bowling Green, Kentucky, he was the son of Rebecca Anne Sutphin and Thomas T. Milburn, a builder. He studied at Arkansas Industrial University in Fayetteville, Arkansas, from 1882 to 1883 and then returned to Kentucky, where he spent six years working with his father. Thomas Milburn enjoyed a strong reputation throughout central Kentucky. In the 1870s he designed and built courthouses in Rockcastle, Wayne, and Russell counties, and for most of the following decade he concentrated on small commercial and domestic projects. In 1888 the father-and-son team began building courthouses in Clay and Powell counties. Thus, by the time he reached his early twenties, Frank Milburn understood the fundamental stages of the building process, from the preparation of plans and specifications to the procurement of materials and actual construction.

Vivian concisely describes the path that would contribute to Milburn's later treatment by the architectural establishment - specific architectural education, licensure, and the like are relatively recent innovations - as with other institutions that successfully created standards, academic rigor, and barriers to the entry of competitors (like medicine) during this period, architecture began to shift from a mentorship- and practical-focused model to a academic model in the late 19th century. Milburn, unfortunately, was born too late to be accepted into the pantheon on the basis of his work alone, as he had contemporaries who had attended the early prominent architecture schools.

In 1890, Milburn established a practice in Kenova, WV - but he would move throughout his career to the place offering the highest volume of work at the time. Milburn earned commissions for courthouses early on, likely from connections made during work with his father. The volume of his work - meaning both commissions sought and earned - was extraordinary throughout his career; he produced designs, on average, for 25 to 55 new buildings per year throughout his career. He moved to Winston(-Salem) in 1893 to commence work on the Forsyth County Courthouse. In 1896, he built the Mecklenberg County Courthouse, and in 1900, he moved to Columbia, SC and completed the South Carolina statehouse in 1903. He produced standardized designs for smaller county courthouses, with variations that could be added for distinction. 

Milburn was one of the early pioneers of advertising his work widely - his promotional booklets are available on the ever-awesome archive.org - you'll have to search for various combinations of frank p. milburn, milburn, milburn and heister, etc. to find all that are available.

By the early 1900s, Milburn had become the official architect for the Southern Railway, and a bevy of train stations followed. This would be Milburn's first foray into Durham, with the construction of Durham's Union Station in 1905. 

 

Vivian notes that although contemporary press repeatedly praised his work, he was largely ignored by the nascent architectural establishment:

Although contemporary accounts generally praised the aesthetics of his work, he failed to attract the attention of the national architectural press. Milburn's name was conspicuously absent from the pages of the July 1911 Architectural Record, a special issue on southern architecture that featured work by architects in cities such as New Orleans, Memphis, and Atlanta as well as buildings designed by northern architects for southern markets. Nor was Milburn mentioned in Fiske Kimball's article “Recent Architecture in the South,” which appeared in the same publication in 1924

UNC made significant use of Milburn as well - I haven't attempted to account for all of the structures on UNC's campus designed by Milburn, but the YMCA, the President's house, and the Carnegie Library are some notables:

In 1906, Milburn set up a more permanent home for his practice in Washington, DC. He had hired Michael Heister in 1903, and by 1909, the firm was known as Milburn and Heister.

The firm's work, already copious, increased rapidly after the move to Washington, DC. The description of their office gives a sense of the volume:

The firm employed a dozen draftsman on average and as many as eighteen during periods of peak demand. By 1912 it occupied a suite of offices that filled the sixth floor of an office building in downtown Washington, D.C., and included drafting and reception rooms, an estimating department, individual offices for Milburn and Heister, and a private workroom.

The firm began to attract commissions for large Federal office buildings in Washington, including the ten-story Interstate Commerce Commission Building (1912), the eleven-story Department of Commerce Building (1912–13), and the nine-story Department of Labor Building (1916–17). The firm's work in DC was extensive - so much so that Milburn's obituary attributed half of the buildings in the business district to his firm's designs.

/sites/default/files/images/2007_3/UnionStation_1910.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2007_3/UnionStation_postcard.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2007_3/unionstation_pcard_W_1920s.jpg/sites/default/files/images/u287/IMG_2564_1000x748.JPG/sites/default/files/images/u287/IMG_2571_1000x749.JPG

UNION STATION

,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1905
/ Demolished in
1968
Architect/Designers: 
,
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 

The gateway to Durham via its raison d'etre - the railroad line - for 60 years; this proud piece of architecture, symbolizing Durham's aspirations as a city of the new south when built in 1905, was demolished to extend a street and build a parking deck in September 1968.

Comments

  • Submitted by Toby on Saturday, August 13, 2011 - 8:54pm

    Gary - 

    The tour feature is awesome! I think the DCVB, DDI, local realtors would be interested in using this in various promotions of Durham. 

    Toby

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In tours

Last updated

  • Mon, 01/06/2014 - 4:34pm by gary

Location

35° 59' 37.7664" N, 78° 53' 59.7048" W

Comments

,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1905
/ Demolished in
1968
Architect/Designers: 
,
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 

 


Union Station, ~1910. Note the original courthouse in the background
(Courtesy Dave Piatt)

When Durham mayor Bill Bell reacted to the DOT's decision to pull back from plans to locate the Amtrak station in the Walker Warehouse, he said, per the Herald-Sun, that Durham was likely to end up the only city in North Carolina "that has a dumpy railroad station." If I were with the state, I would have retorted - "and whose fault is that?"

Neck and neck with the Washington Duke Hotel for the most grievous single-structure architectural loss in Durham history is the demolition of Union Station, demolished by the City of Durham to make way for a road and a parking garage.


(Courtesy Durham County Library)

As with stations around the country with the same (or similar) name, Union station arose out of the need to consolidate several smaller stations, belonging to individual railroad companies, into a single terminal. In Durham, I believe there were three - Seabord, Norfolk-Western, and Southern - scattered along the rail line from Dillard St. to Corcoran.


Looking west from the tracks, south of the courthouse.
(Courtesy The University of North Carolina)

Union Station was constructed in 1905 for ,000 by the above-named railroad companies at the foot of Church St. It was an Italian Renaissance revival structure designed by Milburn and Heister, responsible for many of Durham's early buildings.

(Courtesy NCSU Libraries' Digital Collections:Rare and Unique Materials)

(Courtesy NCSU Libraries' Digital Collections:Rare and Unique Materials)

UnionStation_rendering.jpg

Rendering of the proposed station by Frank Milburn.

 

Its most distinctive feature was a 65-foot tall tower.


(Courtesy Duke Archives)

Above, looking east from the Hosiery Mills building, 1920s. Union Station is at the center and, immediately to its left, the courthouse (which people call the old courthouse, but given that we are about to build our fourth major courthouse, I'll call it the second.) The south-facing facades of East Main are at the extreme left (including the Malbourne Hotel) and the old JD Lyon tobacco company/city stables are immediately across the tracks (with a smidgen of the Venable Warehouse visible beyond it).


(Courtesy The University of North Carolina)

Those who feel that Durham mistakenly located its current jail at the main entry points to downtown should realize that this is a long tradition. As Steve Massengill notes in his book, "Images of America: Durham"

"As a youngster in Durham, the compiler recalls the prisoners' jeering taunts from the open windows of the jail on the top floor [of the courthouse]"

Below, the station in 1924 with the train pulling out. The courthouse is to the right, and the warehouses along Peabody are visible just beyond the station. There was also a jail located in the small structure just behind the tower.


(Courtesy Duke Archives)

But other than the greeting committee, it must have been a beautiful sight to step off the train, exit the station to the cobblestones of Church St. and Trinity Methodist Church as the terminating vista 3 blocks away.

A view of the tower and the station, looking east, 1930.

(Courtesy Durham County Library)

Below, looking west, a train pulling into Union Station, 1940, with the Durham Silk Hosiery Mill in the background.

(Courtesy Durham County Library)

Below, the view of the front of the station from East Main St., looking down S. Church during a snowstorm in 1945.


(Courtesy Herald-Sun)

The old engines were replaced by the 1950s with the less-embellished modern engines. Below, looking northeast from the tracks towards the station.

(Courtesy Durham County Library)

Below, the view east, 1950s.

(Courtesy Durham County Library)


A blurry color shot from the mid-1950s
(Courtesy Barry Norman)

unionstation_S_1962.jpg

Union Station, looking south (unusually.) - Summer 1962. (Louise Hall Collection / Durham County Library)


Union Station interior, 1962.
(Courtesy Herald-Sun)

The rise of the automobile and plane travel were not kind to rail travel. The National Interstate and Defense Highways Act of 1956 began a massive investment of public funds into building national-scale automobile infrastructure (the name gives away the 'Red Scare' rhetoric that influenced passage of the bill, deemed necessary in part to ensure adequate troop movement should there be a war.) The same could not be said of the railroad infrastructure, which was showing its age. The loss of customers to cars and planes made passenger service unprofitable, and by 1965, the railway lines had discontinued passenger service to Durham

The front of "Vnion" Station, 1968, looking southwest

(Courtesy Duke Archives)


1968


1968


1968


1968
The station from the tracks, looking east, 1968.

(Courtesy Durham County Library)

From the platform, looking northwest, 1968.

(Courtesy Duke Archives)

By 1968, Durham had been busy implementing the Tarrant plan, including punching through a road from the West Chapel Hill St. railroad crossing along the formerly intermittent Peabody St. to connect with Roxboro and Ramseur- the southern portion of the downtown loop. At the same time, using Federal Urban Renewal funds, the city had taken and demolished a swath of structures along either side of the path of the Loop, and was building a series of parking garages on that land. 1968 was the year that plan hit Union Station.


Looking southeast.
(Courtesy Durham County Library)


Looking northeast, September 03, 1968.
(Courtesy Herald-Sun)


Looking south, September 05, 1968
(Courtesy Herald-Sun)

And the Church St. parking deck was constructed on this land in 1978.

(Courtesy Durham County Library)

And an addition was built behind the 'old' courthouse in the early 90s, with a similar red roof, on the eastern portion of the former station site.

The site today:

"Make no little plans; they have no magic to stir men’s blood and probably will themselves not be realized," said Daniel Burnham. While I'm a fan of Burnham and the Plan of Chicago, I consider plans that 'stir men's blood' with a skeptical eye. Because the thrust of this website is that a group of people once considered the demolition of Union Station, the Loop, the Freeway, Urban Renewal, etc. a great idea. We like to consider ourselves more enlightened, but then, so did they - convinced that no one would ever ride the train again. What is our self-satisfied conviction?

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FIRST NATIONAL BANK / MAIN AND CORCORAN - SE

123
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1914
Architect/Designers: 
,
Builders: 
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
Local historic district: 
National Register: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 
,

Comments

  • Submitted by Toby on Saturday, August 13, 2011 - 8:54pm

    Gary - 

    The tour feature is awesome! I think the DCVB, DDI, local realtors would be interested in using this in various promotions of Durham. 

    Toby

Add new comment

In tours

Last updated

  • Fri, 01/17/2014 - 2:08pm by gary

Location

35° 59' 43.6596" N, 78° 54' 6.102" W

Comments

123
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1914
Architect/Designers: 
,
Builders: 
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
Local historic district: 
National Register: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 
,

 

------

(Courtesy Duke Archives)

 

First National Bank and its decendents were the longtime occupants of the southeast corner of Main and Corcoran Streets. This was the second First National Bank building, constructed in 1887 by Julian Carr, who was one of the most prominent figures in early Durham history (and three of my previous posts have featured his buildings - Somerset Villa - his home, the Hotel Carrolina, and one of the Durham Hosiery Mills buidings.)

Carr established the bank with seed capital of ,000 of his own money, 0,000 of seed capital from James Augustus Bryan, president of the National Bank of New Bern (enough to make his 23 year old son Charles, just graduated from Princeton, vice-president of the new bank,) and money from 24 other subscribers. The United States Department of Treasury granted a charter to First National Bank on November 9, 1887 to conduct general banking and issue notes. By the end of its first year in business, First National Bank had deposits totaling 5,265.15, and had made a profit of 76.10.

(Courtesy Durham County Library)

This view, taken from the top of the Trust building, looking east on Main Street and to the southeast, dates from between 1905 and 1907. It shows the First National Bank building on the facing corner. Also visible is the Hotel Carrolina, just to the south of the bank, the mansard roof of the Hackney Pharmacy building on the southwest corner, and Blacknall's pharmacy on the northeast corner (prior to the large fire which consumed that block). I can tell the approximate date of this photo because the tower of Union Station is visible in the distance (built in 1905) and the Hotel Carrolina is still standing (burned 1907).

First National Bank, ~1910 - after the Hotel Carrolina has burned.

(Courtesy Durham County Library)

In 1914, the company demolished the original red brick Queen Anne structure to build a large neoclassical revivial replacement structure of seven stories, designed by architects Milburn and Heister.

(Courtesy Durham County Library)

FirstNationalBank_SE_1920s.jpegr

(Courtesy Durham County Library)

A view of the buildings lining Corcoran: the Geer Building, First National Bank building, the Durham Hosiery Mills buildings on the east side; the Croft Business School, and the roof of the old post office are visible on the west side. This was taken from the top of the Washington Duke Hotel (All are gone except the First National Bank building) (Courtesy Durham Country Library)

A closer view. (Courtesy Duke Archives)

With the streetcar going by, 1927.
(Courtesy Durham County Library)

In 1933, the bank became known as Depositors National Bank.

Side windows (Corcoran) above the sidewalk, 1940.

(Courtesy Library of Congress)

In the late 1950s, Security National Bank and Depositors National Bank of Greensboro and Depositors National Bank merged, but rapidly began discussions with American Commercial Bank of Charlotte. On July 1, 1960, the institutions merged to become North Carolina National Bank. At some point thereafter, the original balconies were removed from the front of the building.

1982 view, looking south down Corcoran.

(Courtesy Robby Delius)

(Photo by George Pyne courtesy Milo Pyne)

Canopy

The canopy was removed from the building sometime later.

(Photo by George Pyne courtesy Milo Pyne)

Aerial looking north at downtown, 02.01.89; the red "NCNB" logo is on the white-painted back of the building.

(Courtesy Herald-Sun)

I'm not clear as to when NCNB abandoned downtown Durham. It appears that the building was sold to Carver Investment Group, comprised of Terry Sanford and Clay Hamner of Brightleaf, Erwin Square, and Treyburn fame and Roy J. Carver, by NCNB in 1981, but NCNB seems to have occupied the building after that point.

Self-Help Ventures Fund acquired the building from Carver Investment Group in 2001. They renovated the building, with local historic architecture superstar Eddie Belk - which included locating the old canopy that had been removed from the front entry, restoring it, and replacing it in its rightful location. I'm not sure how it ended up in such bad shape, below.


 

Self-Help currently leases the building as office space.

Looking southeast, 2007. (Photo by Gary Kueber)

07.20.08 (Photo by Gary Kueber)

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/sites/default/files/images/2007_1/carolina_1925.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2007_1/carolinatheater_1926.jpgCarolina_NW_1930.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2007_1/carolinafront_1947.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2007_1/carolina_1940s.jpg

CAROLINA THEATRE

209-211
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1924
/ Modified in
1986
Architect/Designers: 
,
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
Local historic district: 
National Register: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 

The "Durham Auditorium" was the grandest theater in the age of downtown theaters, transitioning from live performances / to moving pictures early on. Spared the wrecking ball in the 1960s, it is the only downtown theater that survives - as a center for independent film, live performance, and movie festivals.

Comments

  • Submitted by Toby on Saturday, August 13, 2011 - 8:54pm

    Gary - 

    The tour feature is awesome! I think the DCVB, DDI, local realtors would be interested in using this in various promotions of Durham. 

    Toby

Add new comment

In tours

Last updated

  • Wed, 09/26/2012 - 11:23am by gary

Location

United States
35° 59' 52.296" N, 78° 54' 10.2492" W
US

Comments

209-211
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1924
/ Modified in
1986
Architect/Designers: 
,
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
Local historic district: 
National Register: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 

 

The Durham Auditorium, designed by Milburn and Heister of Washington D.C., was constructed in 1926 as a replacement for the "New Academy of Music" which was destroyed to make way for the Washington Duke Hotel. As detailed in my post about the first Durham High School/City Hall, the Durham Auditorium was attached to that building, which was remodeled by Milburn and Heister to match the style of the newer buildling.


(Courtesy Duke Archives)

This shot, taken in the mid 1920s, shows the Durham Auditorium either during or immediately after construction. (It appears the site around the building hasn't been completed.) Many other interesting sights are visible in this shot -the large houses lining Morris St. north and south of the Imperial Tobacco building, the modest housing on Roney, the new Durham High and Carr Jr. High in the distance, and more.


Carolina Theatre, under construction, 1926
(Courtesy Duke RBMC - Chamber of Commerce Collection)

The theater showed a mix of live performances and movies. This shot from 1930 shows the original marquee, which (although the resolution is too poor in this digitized version to see it) says the theater is showing "The Cuckoos". The sign to the left of the marquee says "Carolina Soda Shop."

Carolina_NW_1930.jpg
(Courtesy Duke Archives)

The auditorium appears to have been called the Carolina Theatre from a fairly early point in its existence, perhaps to highlight the movie showings, which, over time, began to increasingly dominate the theater's programming.

This shot from 1947 gives a closeup of the marquee.

(Courtesy Durham County Library)

Three shots from 1949 may be overkill, but I find them all fascinating, so why not.

(Courtesy Durham County Library)


(Courtesy Durham County Library)


(Courtesy Durham County Library)

moviestarsintown_011057.jpg

"Movie Stars in Town" - 01.11.57. Bob Nocek and Jim Carl at the Carolina were kind enough to identify John Saxon, and, most likely, Luana Patten - co-stars of "Rock, Pretty Baby" doing publicity for the opening of that film.

(Photo courtesy of The Herald-Sun)

carolinatheatre_032261.jpg

03.22.61

The Carolina was segregated; African-Americans were only allowed to sit in the balcony. I have read that this was sometimes referred to as "buzzards' roost" - a name evidently also given to the corner of McMannen and Pettirew Streets. During 1962, a rolling 'line protest' went on for months, as African-Americans would attempt to buy tickets to the whites-only section and, when refused, would return to the back of the line to try again.


(Courtesy Durham County Library)

I believe the theater was desegregated in 1963.

carolina_1967.jpg

1967 (Louise Hall Collection, NC Collection, DCL)

By the 1970s, the management of the theater shifted to the Carolina Cinema Corporation, a non-profit group that focused on showing foreign and independent films.

Below, a shot taken from the CCB building by Ralph Rogers around 1986 shows the Carolina Theatre, Roney St. and the surrounding area just before it was drastically changed by the construction of the Omni, Convention Center, and the People's Security Insurance building on Morgan St.

(Courtesy Durham County Library)

carolinatheater_1981.jpg
Carolina Theatre from Roney St., southwest, 1981

(Courtesy Robby Delius)

Below, looking south from the closed Roney St. in front of the theater, the convention center is being constructed., 1988.

(Courtesy Durham County Library)

By 1989, the plaza is essentially completed, and the Carolina Theatre was closed for renovation.

(Courtesy Durham County Library)

The theater was closed for a few years, as I remember, and I believe it reopened around 1992. A movie theater was constructed to the south of the original theater, which primarily hosts live performances (although the occasional popular independent film will be shown in the original theater.)

It's very fortunate that the Carolina Theatre dodged the parking lot-bullet aimed its way in the 1960s. It is, in my opinion, the crown jewel of Durham's architectural heritage. I do feel that its energy is diminished by the configuration around it - the strange plaza, the Loop, the parking garage, the odd orientation of the hotel entrance, etc. It's configurations like these that make me distrustful each time Durham says they are going to build a new, grand project.


The plaza and Carolina Theatre, looking south, 2006.

2006

carolinatheatre_072012.jpg

07.20.12

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ALEXANDER FORD MOTOR CO.

330
,
Durham
NC
Built in
1924
Architect/Designers: 
,
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
Local historic district: 
National Register: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 

The Alexander Motor Company was established in 1916 by S. Parks Alexander on the corner of Church and East Parrish Sts. In 1924, they constructed their new dealership at 330 East Main St. To get a sense of how things have changed in the world of car dealerships, the Alexander Ford Company hired Milburn and Heister to design their structure.

Comments

  • Submitted by Toby on Saturday, August 13, 2011 - 8:54pm

    Gary - 

    The tour feature is awesome! I think the DCVB, DDI, local realtors would be interested in using this in various promotions of Durham. 

    Toby

Add new comment

In tours

Last updated

  • Mon, 06/25/2012 - 2:12pm by gary

Location

35° 59' 34.2384" N, 78° 53' 50.586" W

Comments

330
,
Durham
NC
Built in
1924
Architect/Designers: 
,
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
Local historic district: 
National Register: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 

 

During the early 20th century, the large, elaborate dwellings in the 300 and 400 blocks of East Main St. (the two blocks between Roxboro and Dillard St.) were progressively torn down to make way for commercial and institutional structures. A frame, single story house sat on the site of the later Alexander Motor Company from the 1880s until the 1920s.

The Alexander Motor Company was established in 1916 by S. Parks Alexander on the corner of Church and East Parrish Sts. The company started out by selling the Model T Ford. In 1918, the company moved to Foster Street, between East Chapel Hill and Morgan Streets. In 1921, they built a three-story sales and service building "north of the 200 block of East Chapel Hill St., about midway between Foster and Roney Streets." (Whatever that means.) In 1924, they constructed their new dealership at 330 East Main St.

To get a sense of how things have changed in the world of car dealerships, the Alexander Ford Company hired Milburn and Heister (who designed Union Station, the Carolina Theater, and the Durham County Courthouse, among other buildings) to design their structure. Hard to imagine a present-day car dealership hiring a renowned architecture firm to design their dealership.


Alexander Motor Company (with the elaborate entrance awning) and Johnson Motor Company in the background, late 1930s.


Alexander Ford Motor Co., 04.11.62
(Herald-Sun)

Alexander Ford left this building in the late 1970s to move to an 11+ acre parcel that had been cleared by urban renewal. It was later renamed University Ford.


The former Alexander Ford Motor Co., now the Durham Housing Authority, looking southeast, 2007.

Find this spot on a Google Map.

35.992893,-78.897434

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/sites/default/files/images/2007_5/eligibility_1920s.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2007_5/DayHouse_1895.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2007_5/sanborn_300emain_1902.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2007_5/lyonhouse_electric.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2007_5/eligibility_1920s.jpg

300 EAST MAIN STREET / ELIGIBILITY BUILDING

300
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1924
Architect/Designers: 
,
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
,
Local historic district: 
National Register: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 

In 1924, the site at the corner of Main and Roxboro Streets was selected by the Masons for their lodge; funds were raised and the three-story building built. In 1938, the building was lost/forfeited by the Masons to the mortgage holder (an insurance company); the property was then purchased by the county for use as its health department. In 1992, the Health Dept. moved down the block, leaving the building vacant.

Comments

  • Submitted by Toby on Saturday, August 13, 2011 - 8:54pm

    Gary - 

    The tour feature is awesome! I think the DCVB, DDI, local realtors would be interested in using this in various promotions of Durham. 

    Toby

Add new comment

In tours

Last updated

  • Thu, 04/04/2013 - 1:29pm by gary

Location

35° 59' 36.3228" N, 78° 53' 54.0168" W

Comments

300
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1924
Architect/Designers: 
,
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
,
Local historic district: 
National Register: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 

 

Masonic Building, built 1924.

---

 

JR Day house, looking southeast from Roxboro and East Main Streets, 1895

I'll mention the JR Day house again today, which took up most of the southern 300 block of East Main St. As labeled on the Sanborn map below, it was even noted as "Central Hotel." I haven't read any other reference to this, and the label is absent in subsequent years.


Sanborn Fire Insurance Map of the 300 block of East Main St., 1902.

Below, the Day house from the rear, as well as the First Presbyterian Church to the left, and the barely-visible steeple of St. Philip's to the right.


Looking north, 1899.
(Courtesy Duke Archives)

By the early 1920s, and, looking at the deed, probably 1917, the Day house was torn down, and the Durham Sun building, the Astor Theater, and a Freemason's Lodge were constructed on the property. Today's post focuses on the Lodge, later known as the Eligibility building.


(Courtesy Duke Archives)

Fraternal organizations were omnipresent in Durham during the late 1800s and early 1900s - Elks, Knights Templar, Odd Fellows, and others, including three branches of Freemasons. I've been unable to determine which branch of the two white-affiliated Masons built the building on the southeast corner of Roxboro and E. Main. I think the lettering ("AF & AM") stands for "Ancient Free and Accepted Masons". On the side of the building are the letters "B.P.O.E." If anyone has any insight into that, let me know. [Thanks to RWE, below, who mentions that this stands for 'Benign Protective Order of the Elks.' If I'd looked back at my own post about the Temple Building, I would have realized this. This quite interesting, as I have no record that the Elks were housed here.]

It appears that this building housed two lodges of the Masons - the Durham and Eno. There is a notation in Jean Anderson's book that the Eno Lodge was organized around 1860, but that the Doric Lodge (another lodge, evidently) was the oldest fraternal organization in Durham.

A reader supplied the following additional information from the "History of Durham Lodge Number 352" compiled by R.D. Love 1986 and "Historical Sketch of Durham Lodge No. 352 A.F. & A.M." by Irving E. Allen, 1946. I need to integrate it better into this post, but here it is (I've added hyperlinks).

"June 14, 1876: the Durham Lodge has its first organizational meeting (meeting place uncertain); officers are elected, with James H. Southgate elected 'Worshipful Master.' Several (6?) of the members were from the Eno Lodge, which was considered to have 'very poor leadership and was in a
more or less dormant state.'

December 6, 1876: the Durham Lodge receives its charter. Early lodge leaders included Julian Carr, James Southgate (previously of Hillsborough), E. J. Parrish, L.T. Smith, and others.

The lodge's first meeting place is unrecorded. The minutes of the April 10, 1877, lodge meeting state that Julian Carr and William T. Blackwell agreed to rent a room to the lodge for 0 annually. This room may have been in the Bull Durham tobacco factory. By 1881, membership was reported at 39 men.

After some time, the lodge meetings moved to the Wright Building on the SW corner of Main and Corcoran Streets. Then it moved to the upstairs of the building that housed T.J. Lambe's men's clothing store. Then it moved to the "upper stories" of the Sneed-Markham building at the SW corner of Main and Mangum Streets, where the rooms were shared with the Pythian Order).

In 1924, plans were (again) started for a permanent meeting place/temple for the lodge. A site at the corner of Main and Roxboro Streets was selected, and funds were raised and the three-story building built. During the 'Great Depression', in 1938, the building was lost/forfeited by the Masons to the mortgage holder (an insurance company); the property was then purchased by the county for use as its health department.

After losing the building, the lodge temporarily moved to the Temple Building. In the 1940s, the Masons purchased 'a very desirable lot' on Mangum Street, but no building apparently was ever built at the site. In 1953, they finally decided to move and purchased and renovated the 'abandoned' 1913 Lakewood Methodist Church on Palmer Street."

Information about the Mason's actual use of the building, perhaps appropriate for a rather secretive group, is scant. By the late 1930s, the Masons were still in the building, upstairs, and a car dealership that had been located on the ground floor had moved out of the building to Morgan St.


Looking southeast, ~1930s.
(Courtesy Duke Archives)

The first floor was also home to Elliott Furniture company during the 1930s.

After acquiring the building - sometime between 1938 and 1941, the Health Department, in a popular 1940s re-do, filled in the 1st floor windows with glass block.


Looking southeast, 1950s.
(Courtesy Durham County Library)


The Health Department, looking southwest from E. Main St., 1966.
(Courtesy Durham County Library)

The Health Department moved down the street to the former Sears and Roebuck. The county bought that property in 1972, but I'm not sure if the Health Department moved soon after that, or later. The Eligibility building then took on its current name, by housing the eligibility section of the Social Services Department.

Below, the building in 1986, looking south-southeast from Roxboro.


(Courtesy Durham County Library)

The building has been empty since 1992. The county sold the building through an open bid process in March of 2007 to David Revere - a new developer on the scene who recently moved from Los Angeles to Chapel Hill - who intends on converting the upper floors to office space (although I've also heard residential,) and the first floor to a restaurant.

It will be great to see this building re-occupied with some new life - and perhaps even better to help bridge the east-west divide at Roxboro with some activity on this corner. I don't know the interior condition, although I've heard there is a sizable auditorium in the building. I hope he keeps the air raid siren on top of the building (although I hope he chooses ignore American Tobacco's example of unnecessary horn soundings for kitschy effect.)

He also bought the lot next door, the former location of the Astor Theater, which had become a storefront church - and another abandoned building - before the county tore it down. I hope that he'll be able to build an infill building on that lot, which would help re-bridge the streetscape with the former Durham Sun Building. The county's parking deck (complete with helipad) behind the buildings did not come with the deal.


Looking southeast, 2006.


300 East Main, 05.21.11

Some interior improvements and facade improvements started in late 2012.

04.04.13

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HILLSIDE PARK HIGH SCHOOL / WHITTED JUNIOR HIGH

200
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1922
Architect/Designers: 
,
People: 
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
,
Neighborhood: 
Type: 

Comments

  • Submitted by Toby on Saturday, August 13, 2011 - 8:54pm

    Gary - 

    The tour feature is awesome! I think the DCVB, DDI, local realtors would be interested in using this in various promotions of Durham. 

    Toby

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In tours

Last updated

  • Mon, 06/25/2012 - 2:22pm by gary

Location

35° 58' 56.3124" N, 78° 54' 9.9612" W

Comments

200
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1922
Architect/Designers: 
,
People: 
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
,
Neighborhood: 
Type: 

 


Hillside Park High School, 1922.
(Courtesy Duke Rare Book and Manuscript Collection. Scanned by Digital Durham)


Hillside Park High School, 1924
(Courtesy Durham County Library / North Carolina Collection)

The original Hillside Park High School was built in 1922 on the northern edge of land donated by John Sprunt Hill for Hillside Park. Hillside Park High School was the first high school for African-Americans in Durham; prior to 1922, the Whitted, East End, and West End Graded Schools were the only educational facilities for African Americans - these schools only taught up to 8th grade. Even then, Hillside did not have a 12th grade until 1937, and the 12th grade offered solely vocational training until the 1940s.

Below, Hillside Park High School, 1949.

Around 1950, the need to expand the high school, and the lack of land to expand into at this site, prompted the School Board to switch Whitted Elementary School and Hillside Park High School (which became simply Hillside) with one another. This building then became Whitted Junior High School.

It remained Whitted into the 1970s, at which point it was abandoned. The building housed Operation Breakthrough in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and has housed several other programs since that time. It has been completely abandoned for several years now.

I believe that as the first high school for African-Americans in Durham, it is essential that this building be preserved, particularly given the loss of so many other original school buildings.

Find this spot on a Google Map.

35.982309,-78.902767

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1309NMangum_1981.jpg1311NMangum_021211.jpeg

1311 NORTH MANGUM STREET

1311
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1917
Architect/Designers: 
,
Construction type: 
National Register: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 

Comments

  • Submitted by Toby on Saturday, August 13, 2011 - 8:54pm

    Gary - 

    The tour feature is awesome! I think the DCVB, DDI, local realtors would be interested in using this in various promotions of Durham. 

    Toby

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In tours

Last updated

  • Sun, 12/16/2012 - 10:09am by gary

Location

36° 0' 34.4304" N, 78° 53' 36.6324" W

Comments

1311
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1917
Architect/Designers: 
,
Construction type: 
National Register: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 

 

1309NMangum_1981.jpg

1981

In 1917, the Duke Land and Improvement Company constructed this two story frame house for Richard E. Dillard. As one of the earliest houses built north of the Norfolk and Western Railroad tracks on this major entrance to the city, the Dillard House is characterized by its handsome design, solid construction and prominent location, all of which were intended to proclaim the im- portance of its owners.

Dillard's business interests included livestock, real estate, paper manufacturing and banking.

This well executed example of the popular Colonial Revival style is the only house in Durham known to have been designed by the prominent architectural firm of Milburn and Heister Company. [N.B. - the Teer descendants claim that the Teer House on Roxboro Road was designed by M&H, and Yancey Milburn, as principal of M&H in the late 1920s, designed his own house on Vickers Avenue.]

The self-contained, boxy form of the Dillard House is distinguished by the large convex portico supported by Doric columns. In contrast to the neoclassical elements, the roofline incorporates deep eaves, a gently sloping hip roof and tall chimneys. The interior was greatly altered when the house was converted to apartments in the 1950s. Restoration of the house began in 1977 after it suffered deterioration from neglect and vandalism. In 1978, the Dillard House was listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

1311NMangum_021211.jpeg
02.12.11

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/sites/default/files/images/2007_3/FireStation1_MandHrendering.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2007_3/firestation1_original_1900.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2007_3/firestation1_firechief.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2007_3/firestation1.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2007_3/firedept_1893.jpg

FIRE STATION #1 (SECOND)

212
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1924
/ Modified in
1969
,
2008
Architect/Designers: 
,
Construction type: 
,
Local historic district: 
National Register: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 
,

Comments

  • Submitted by Toby on Saturday, August 13, 2011 - 8:54pm

    Gary - 

    The tour feature is awesome! I think the DCVB, DDI, local realtors would be interested in using this in various promotions of Durham. 

    Toby

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In tours

Last updated

  • Mon, 06/25/2012 - 3:09pm by gary

Location

United States
35° 59' 45.0456" N, 78° 53' 58.8516" W
US

Comments

212
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1924
/ Modified in
1969
,
2008
Architect/Designers: 
,
Construction type: 
,
Local historic district: 
National Register: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 
,

 

The home of the "Golden Belt Hose Company", a primarily volunteer firefighting squad, was constructed at the intersection of Holloway and Mangum Streets between 1888 and 1893, likely in 1890, on land adjacent to the E.J. Parrish tobacco warehouse.


Fire Station #1, probably around 1900.
(Courtesy University of North Carolina Library)


Fire Chief Dennis Christian in front of the Fire Station.
(Courtesy Duke RMBC - Wyatt Dixon Collection)

By the 1910s, the Mangum St. side of the building had been remodeled with large doorways to allow motorized trucks to move in and out of the station.


Above, the Italianate Fire Station around 1910, and Company #1 demonstrating their motorized equipment, which was replacing horse-drawn equipment that was not fully phased out until 1918.
(Courtesy Durham County Library)

Above, the Sanborn map from 1893, showing the fire department at the intersection of Mangum and Holloway. (spelled "Hollaway" here)

Below, an earlier view, from around 1905, looking east from the newly constructed Trust Building. Parrish St. is to the left, and the towers of First Baptist Church, Fire Station #1 (with its weathervane and windsock), and Trinity Methodist Church in the background. The Parrish warehouse is the low brick structure to the right of the Fire station (it looks a bit strange - I think two pictures were imperfectly spliced.)

(Courtesy Duke Archives)


The fire company in 1922. Commercial structures along Holloway to the left and the back of commercial structures facing Parrish St. are to the right.
(Courtesy Durham County Library)

Below, a view from the same era, showing the Rogers Drug Co. and First Baptist Church.

In 1924, the original fire station was torn down, and a new one designed by Milburan and Heister was constructed on the same spot.


Milburn and Heister rendering of the new station.
(Courtesy Duke Rare Book and Manuscript Collection - Wyatt Dixon Collection)

Below, the view looking northwest over the buildings on Parrish St., with the First Baptist Church on the left. The foundation and first-floor walls are in place of the new building.


(Courtesy Duke Archives)

The new fire station bore some resemblance to the original, but reflected a more typical 1920s appearance, with Craftsman-style elements such as exposed rafter tails as well as multipane windows and doors. The doors were still side-hinged (swinging outward).

(Courtesy Durham County Library)

By 1960, the doors had been replaced with roll-up rather than swing-out doors.

(Courtesy Durham County Library)


Fire engine exiting station #1, looking north, 09.20.54
(Courtesy the Herald-Sun Newspaper)

Below, an aerial view from the early 1960s showing Fire Station #1 in context.

By 1964, a new fire station #1 was built at Cleveland and Morgan Sts. and this fire station was left empty. It was purchased and converted into offices in 1969 by Gerard Tempest, who had earlier built The Villa in Chapel Hill out of parts of Harwood Hall and Four Acres.


The old station under renovation, 02.14.69
(Courtesy Herald-Sun)

Which it remained through the later decades of the 20th century.


Former fire station #1, 1980s.
(Courtesy Durham County Library)

firestation1_2006.jpg

2006
This is another Greenfire property, in the midst of renovation during 2007-2008 in conjunction with 107 East Parrish St. and the Rogers drugstore.


Looking east, 2007.

FireStation1_072408.jpg

07.24.08

firestation1_103011.jpg

10.30.11

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/sites/default/files/images/2007_5/firstpres_1916.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2007_5/firstpresoriginal_1880s.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2007_5/FirstPresbyterian_NE_1905.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2007_5/firstpres_1905.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2007_5/emain_west_1890s.jpg

FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH (1916)

305
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1916
Architect/Designers: 
,
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
,
,
Local historic district: 
National Register: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 

Comments

  • Submitted by Toby on Saturday, August 13, 2011 - 8:54pm

    Gary - 

    The tour feature is awesome! I think the DCVB, DDI, local realtors would be interested in using this in various promotions of Durham. 

    Toby

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In tours

Last updated

  • Mon, 10/21/2013 - 12:42pm by gary

Location

United States
35° 59' 37.266" N, 78° 53' 52.6236" W
US

Comments

305
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1916
Architect/Designers: 
,
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
,
,
Local historic district: 
National Register: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 

 

The First Presbyterian Church began when Dr. Richard Blacknall moved from 'Red Mountain' (Rougemont) to Durham in 1860 and persuaded Revs. James and Charles Phillips to come from Chapel Hill to hold sermons in the Trinity Methodist or First Baptist churches. His wife organized Sunday school classes in the First Baptist Church as well. The congregation was organized in 1871 during a meeting of the "Orange Prebytery" which met in the old Durham Academy building (no relation to the current school) on Chapel Hill St. to form a church composed of 11 members.

The church functioned for several more years without a structure of its own, until it was able to purchase a site at the corner of the Roxboro Road and Main St. in 1875 and construct a small frame church building.


Looking northeast ~1880 at the intersection of Roxboro and Main, as well as the Presbyterian Church and surrounding houses. Many of these simpler frame houses would later be replaced by more ornate structures. You can note the ornate E.J. Parrish House in the distance to the right side of the picture.
(Courtesy Duke Archives)

George W. Watts (who funded the construction of Watts Hospital - twice) was an early member of the church congregation, and helped fund missionary trips to Cuba, Brazil, Korea, various parts of Africa, and other parts of the U.S.

By 1890, this structure was no longer adequate to hold the congregation, and new Gothic Revival church, with a 70 foot tower, was constructed on the same site to replace it, with the financial assistance of Mr. Watts.


Looking northeast, 1905.
(Courtesy Duke Archives)


Looking northwest from E. Main St., 1905.
(Courtesy Durham County Library)


Looking west on East Main St., ~1900. First Presbyterian is on the right.
(Courtesy Durham County Library)


Looking east on East Main St. from Church St., ~1900
(Courtesy UNC)


Looking northeast, 1910.
(Courtesy Duke Archives)

In 1916, the church hired architects Milburn and Heister (Carolina Theatre, Union Station, etc.) - better known for their neoclassical designs - to design a new Gothic Revivial structure for them to replace the previous brick structure. The result was an impressive structure of contrasting brick and stone and deeply recessed stained glass across the front facade.


First Presbyterian, looking northeast, 1917.

In 1922, the church added a 'church house' adjoining the structure to the east.


The church and church house in 1926, looking northwest.
(Courtesy Durham County Library)


A partial view of the chruch from the air, looking northwest, 1924. The Eligibility building is to the left, the Malbourne Hotel directly across Roxboro, and the Afton Inn and other large residences along Roxboro are visible moving towards the top of frame.
(Courtesy Duke Archives)

The congregation continued to grow throughout the 20th century.


First Presbyterian and the Public Library, visible during a parade on East Main St., looking northeast, 1940s.

FirstPres_lightning_1950s.jpg

"Lightning Strikes First Presbyterian" (Courtesy Herald-Sun)

As with the remainder of the downtown churches, the 1950s and 1960s were a difficult period, in which suburban migration changed the neighborhood considerably, and the natural base for the congregation. The surrounding residential neighborhood was demolished in the late 1960s by the City of Durham using urban renewal funds. The church's website notes that the congregation voted to stay downtown during this period.

First Presbyterian demolished part of its own structure in 1963, destroying the rear wing of the building (I'm not sure what its function was) that is visible in the 1924 picture above.


Recently demolished, 1963 - looking southeast from Roxboro.
(Courtesy Durham County Library)


New educational building built in its place, 1964 - looking southeast from Roxboro.
(Courtesy Durham County Library)

Along with St. Philip's, Trinity Methodist, and First Baptist, First Presbyterian was a founding member of Congregations in Action, which sought to provide assistance to residents of Oldham Towers and the Liberty St. Apartments.

First Presbyterian continues to be an active congregation downtown, involved in numerous religious and civic actvities.


Looking northeast, 2006.
(Photo by Gary Kueber)


First Presbyterian Church, 05.21.11

(Photo by Gary Kueber)

10.21.13 (Photo by Gary Kueber)

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/sites/default/files/images/2007_5/courthouse_1921.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2007_5/FirstCountyCourthouse_SW.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2007_5/oldcourtchurch_1890.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2007_5/firstcourthouse_SE_1900s.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2007_5/OriginalCountyCourthouse_SEfromEMain.jpg

DURHAM COUNTY COURTHOUSE (SECOND)

,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1916
Architect/Designers: 
,
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
,
Local historic district: 
National Register: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 

Comments

  • Submitted by Toby on Saturday, August 13, 2011 - 8:54pm

    Gary - 

    The tour feature is awesome! I think the DCVB, DDI, local realtors would be interested in using this in various promotions of Durham. 

    Toby

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In tours

Last updated

  • Mon, 06/25/2012 - 3:18pm by gary

Location

United States
35° 59' 37.9824" N, 78° 53' 57.2568" W
US

Comments

,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1916
Architect/Designers: 
,
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
,
Local historic district: 
National Register: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 

 


Looking southwest, ~1920.
(Courtesy Duke Archives).
After Durham County was established by vote of the state legislature in 1881, the first courthouse (and everything else related to the business of the new county) was located in rented space in Stokes Hall, on the northeast corner of Corcoran and West Main St.

The county was soon cramped for space, and by 1883 had begun to plan for additional space. The county erected a small jail and, at county expense, a mayor's office on the southeast corner of Church St. and East Main St, on land donated by Julian Carr and EJ Parrish. (The building may have been the house that was already on the land - sources differ.)

Evidently, prisoners were soon singing and calling to passersby - an early complaint, dating at least to 1885, was voiced when a woman wrote the city complaining of the "profanity and lascivious language." As a result (and at her suggestion), a 10 foot high fence was erected around the property.

By 1889, the county hired Byron Pugin, who had built the Day house on Ramseur St., BN Duke's 'Terrace', the Parrish building, and other early structures to design the courthouse. The initiation of construction was a major event - EJ Parrish's light infantry, the fire hose companies (both African-American and white), all of the movers and shakers, and, of course, the Masons, who performed the "ritual anointing of the cornerstone with oil, wine, and fruits of the field" per Anderson. A convict crew performed the excavation and much of the construction labor, and the brick for the structure was evidently "fired at the County poorhouse."


First County courthouse, looking south-southwest from East Main St.
(Courtesy Duke RBMC - Wyatt Dixon Collection)

The County courthouse had the distinction of having the first sewer pipe in Durham - which carried its effluent down to the tributaries of Third Fork Creek on Pine St. (now Roxboro) south of the railroad tracks. The other rather ignominious distinction of the first courthouse is the fact that two legal hangings took place in its courtyard - one for a man murdering his wife, and the other for "first degree burglary")


Looking east from the corner of Church and East Main, with the first courthouse on the right, 1890s.
(Courtesy Duke Archives).


Looking southeast from East Main St.
(Courtesy Durham County Library)


(Courtesy Duke RBMC - Wyatt Dixon Collection)

By the mid-1910s, space was again at a premium, and the county issued bonds in the amount of 6,466.76 to build a new courthouse. A new neoclassical structure was design by Milburn and Heister to replace the older courthouse on the site. In 1916, another groundbreaking ceremony was held, in which the contents of the original building's cornerstone were placed in the new cornerstone (along with additional items) and the cornerstone was again anointed by the Masons.


Looking southwest, ~1920.
(Courtesy Duke Archives).


Looking southeast, ~1920
(Courtesy Durham County Library)

The jail was located on the top floor of the structure, from which point the prisoners would shout at people passing on the street.


Looking southeast from the northeast corner of Church and East Main., 1940s.
(Courtesy Durham County Library)

countycourthouse_1960.jpg

County Courthouse, ~1960 (Courtesy Herald-Sun)

By the 1960s, the perpetual question of space had reared its head again, and, after the city destroyed the buildings in the block across the street, the county set about building a brand new courthouse (which as we later learned, was purportedly too small from the moment it was occupied.)

DurhamCountyCourthouse_1974_0.jpg

Durham County Courthouse, from the cleared 200 block of East Main Street looking south, 1974

(Courtesy Norman Williams Collection)


Looking southeast, 1970s

In 1978, that courthouse was completed, and, perhaps because it really was too small to contain the various necessary offices, the 1916 courthouse was retained, and it continues to hold various county offices today. The prisoners no longer shout from the top floor, but I'm still hopeful we can get that effect for the patrons of our new Performing Arts Center.


Looking southwest, 2007.

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/sites/default/files/images/2008_6/DurhamHigh_1920s.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2008_6/BrodieDukeHouse_1883.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2008_6/TPplat_hatedst_1901.jpgBLDuke+Wife_Cad_1912.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2014_5/Screen%20shot%202014-05-23%20at%206_18_38%20AM.jpg

CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOL / DURHAM HIGH SCHOOL / DURHAM SCHOOL OF THE ARTS

401
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1922
/ Modified in
1995
Architect/Designers: 
,
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
,
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 

Comments

  • Submitted by Toby on Saturday, August 13, 2011 - 8:54pm

    Gary - 

    The tour feature is awesome! I think the DCVB, DDI, local realtors would be interested in using this in various promotions of Durham. 

    Toby

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In tours

Last updated

  • Fri, 05/23/2014 - 7:56am by gary

Location

36° 0' 11.6064" N, 78° 54' 22.8276" W

Comments

401
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1922
/ Modified in
1995
Architect/Designers: 
,
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
,
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 

 

Durham High School

---


Brodie Duke's house, 1883.
(Courtesy Durham County Library / North Carolina Collection)

Brodie Duke, the eldest of Washington Duke's children, was the first of the Duke clan to recognize the potential of Durham in expanding tobacco production and transport.

Brodie was born in 1846, the second child of Washington Duke and Mary Caroline Clinton. His mother died when he was 1. Washington Duke remarried, to Artelia Roney and had 3 children, Mary, Ben and James. In 1858, both the eldest child, Sidney, and Artelia died.

Brodie thus became the oldest surviving child, and the only surviving child of his mother. He served - possibly impressed into service - as a scrawny youth in the Confederacy, stationed at the Confederate prison in Salisbury, NC. At the end of the war, he tried farming shares with his uncle William Duke, as Washington Duke and his remaining children began to create their own small manufacturing venture.

Always a bit of an outsider to the machinations of the rest of the Duke family, Brodie struck out on his own from his father's business. Brodie was the first of the Dukes to move to Durham; he purchased a frame building on Main Street to set up his own business in 1869. He lived upstairs and manufactured tobacco downstairs, calling his brands "Semper Idem" and developing the soon to be famous "Duke of Durham." It was evidently during this time that he first succumbed to what would become a lifelong battle with alcoholism.

In 1874, the remainder of the Dukes saw the opportunity presented by Durham - Washington Duke sold his farm and moved to Durham, building a frame tobacco manufacturing building on West Main St. - this building had separate partitions - one for Brodie Duke's business, and the other for Washington Duke's - although they initially had a 'mutual assistance' arrangement where each would sell the other's products. Brodie built his own tobacco warehouse - located at present-day Liggett and Corporation Streets around 1878. Around this same time, he joined with his father and the other sons to form W. Duke and Sons Tobacco Co. Sometime during 1870s, Brodie married his first wife, Martha McMannen, daughter of John McMannen (who developed the houses on McMannen Street.) Brodie Duke, although he owned shares in W. Duke and Sons, was not engaged in the day to day operations of the business - I get the feeling that the remainder of the family preferred it that way.

Brodie, perhaps by virtue of being first on the Durham scene, but perhaps because he didn't remain as completely engaged in building a tobacco empire as his father and two half-brothers, Ben and Buck, accumulated a great deal of land on the west side of Durham, including most of what would become Trinity Park. He built his own estate on a 15 acre plot of land sometime prior to 1883, just one block west of his tobacco factory. The street we now know as "Duke St." is so named because it initially led to (and ended at) his house and land.

He also built mercantile establishments and office buildings downtown - which did not fare so well. The first, near Main and Church Sts., was destroyed in a large Durham fire in 1881. Another, the five story brick office builing called the "Brodie Duke Building" in the 100 block of West Main St., was where a disastrous 1914 fire started that destroyed the entire block.

Brodie's life seemed to be a series of such advancements and reversals - he bought the Bennett Place in 1890 and built a shell around the outside to try to preserve it - so that he could try to sell it to the World Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago. He had no takers. He invested heavily in cotton textiles- including the Commonwealth Cotton Company and in establishing the Pearl Cotton Mill just northeast of his estate in 1892.

In 1891-2 he traveled to Illinois to receive the "Keeley Cure" - for alcoholism - and returned ostensibly sober. By 1893, he had declared bankruptcy, the mills were taken over by his brother Ben, and Brodie fell back into a pattern of "indulging in whiskey and women."

However, this did not stem his contributions to the development of much of what we think of as 'historic Durham' today. Having amassed large quantities of land extending from Trinity College through present-day Old North Durham and Duke Park (one source notes his acquisition of "150 acres at an acre",) Duke awaited the establishment of a successful streetcar system to develop his land. The planned trolley extension into future Trinity Park, known as the Dummy Street Railway, failed before it could get off the ground. However, after Richard Wright successfully started the Durham Light and Traction Company in 1901, Duke began subdividing land and selling off parcels in Trinity Park and North Durham. Duke initially named the streets in Trinity such that Gregson St. was named "Hated St." Thus, his antipathy for George Watts - who as a strict Presbyterian no doubt disapproved greatly of Brodie Duke's lifestyle - was expressed each time a person read a map or traveled east-west. The streets would read (depending on the direction of travel) "Duke - Hated - Watts".


1901 plat map of Trinity Park, showing Duke's house and "Hated Street."
(Many thanks to HW for sending this along)

Brodie was divorced from his second wife by 1904 (a quite unusual occurrence at the time,) and while on a multi-day bender in New York City during his younger brother Buck Duke's wedding, ended up married to his third wife (to whom he had also given several promissory notes and various prenuptial promises- for how much cash isn't stated.) The Duke family lawyers obtained a warrant for Brodie's commitment to a sanitarium, pleading a temporary insanity due to intoxication. He managed to successfully sue for divorce on the grounds that he had no recollection of the series of events. The brothers were not at all close after Brodie's 'night(s) in New York' and subsequent events.

Brodie had to put his wealth in the care of trustees during this event, and appears to have laid just a bit lower over the next several years. Despite his wayward ways, he seemed to evince some of the same streak of civic and educational generosity that possessed the remainder of his family. In 1886, he had donated the land for the Main Street Methodist Church. In 1910, Duke donated two lots of land for the King's Daughters Home on Buchanan Blvd. with a 0 "nest egg", and evidently named the intersecting street Gloria, "because of the glory of being able to aid such a cause" - that cause being the the provision of shelter and care to elderly women. He also donated the land that became (Brodie) Duke Park.

Also in 1910, Brodie married his fourth wife, Wylanta Rochelle. As Robert Durden puts it, Duke would pass by the Rochelle family home on his walk downtown and stop by the front porch to argue with the Rochelle patriarch, who was a Democrat (Brodie, like all the Dukes, was a staunch Republican - although these were quite different categories than present-day.) The fact that Wylanta Rochelle was 40 years his junior was probably of less concern to the rest of the Duke family than simply ensuring that the groom (and bride) had actually made a sober commitment.

BLDuke+Wife_Cad_1912.jpg
Wylanta Rochelle and Brodie Duke in the back of his Cadillac, 1912.
(Courtesy Durham County Library / North Carolina Collection)

He died on February 2, 1919; per Robert Durden in "The Dukes of Durham", Brodie died unreconciled with his half-brothers, and neither attended his funeral, a ceremony held in his home - although Ben Duke was quite ill at the time.

The city high school (for whites) on Morris St. had become quite crowded, and the availability of Duke's land presented the opportunity to develop a new high school with ample facilities.

 

In 1922, construction was completed on the new high school building, built just to the north of Brodie Duke's former house. The school was designed by Milburn & Heister, a firm responsible for many of Durham's most impressive civic buildings; the company was engaged at the same time in transforming the former high school into a new City Hall.

(Photos from the DHS Messenger)

The Durham High School Messenger wrote in 1923:

"THE year 1923 will forever be assocjated with the 'new building.' Few of us can remember when a new high school building was not discussed but it has been - the good fortune of the present class to see that discussion gloriously materialized. The student body was transferred to the new high school building November 20, 1922 and of the impressions associated with that memorable day perhaps Senior gratitude and pride were -most conspicuous.

We were so delighted at the provision which has been made for our work and our play in this, a new domain. To have one's own locker! and an honest- to-goodness library; and just to drift into a modern cafeteria provided for us . alone; a -chameleon-like auditorium, first an auditorium, then a gymnasium, and . ,. then neither but a theater where school plays could at last be satisfactorily pro- duced; last but not least, a sure-enough swimming pool.

The class of '23 especially thanks the school board for enabling it to graduate from the most modern high school in North Carolina." ..

Pictures of the brand new school below, all from the 1923 Durham Messsenger, via the DigitalNC project.

The area around the school continued to grow from semi-rural to urban - with industry to the south and east and residential to the north and west.


The completed Central High School (soon known as Durham High) and Brodie Duke's house, 1926.
(Courtesy Durham County Library / North Carolina Collection)


Postcard of Durham High School
(Courtesy John Schelp)

1924 (from the Durham High School Messenger, via Milo Pyne)

By 1928, a newly centralized Junior High School, named for Julian Carr, was completed at the southern extent of Duke's former estate, facing Morgan Street. The school was designed by George W. Carr.


Julian Carr Junior High, 1930.
(Courtesy Durham County Library / North Carolina Collection)


Looking west-northwest from downtown at the completed Junior High, High School, and Brodie Duke's house.
(Courtesy Duke Rare Book and Manuscript Collection / Digital Durham)

Duke's house remained on the school site for at least 6-7 years after construction of the high school. There was evidently a large fish pond in back of the house that the students would mine for biology class specimens. Likely sometime around 1930, the former house was torn down and a home economics building was constructed near its former location.


Looking northwest across the Liggett-Myers complex to the Carr Junior High and Central High School, ~1930. The Brodie Duke house may still be standing in this picture - I can't decide.
(Courtesy Durham County Library / North Carolina Collection)


A view of the high school from near Trinity Avenue, date unknown, but likely mid-1930s to 1940. A bit of the home ec building is visible at the left edge of the frame. Duke's house is certainly gone by this time.
(Courtesy Durham County Library / North Carolina Collection)

Below, a ~4 minute excerpt from H. Lee Waters' films of Durham, showing the high school and junior high, lots of student shots, and some interesting views of the surrounding streetscape - late 1930s or 1940.

(Courtesy Durham County Library / North Carolina Collection)

A gymnasium was added to the north end of the campus sometime in the 1940s.


Looking south from ~ W. Trinity Avenue at the full extent of the high school and junior high campus - the gymnasium is at the northeast corner of the campus - early 1950s.
(Courtesy The Herald-Sun Newspaper

Below, Carr Junior High in the 1950s.

Carr Junior High, 1950s, looking northwest.
(Courtesy The Herald-Sun Newspaper

In 1953, the home ec building was evidently moved to make way for a new auditorium building. I don't think the home ec building exists anymore (unless it's hidden behind some building and I missed it.) So I presume that although it was moved, it was later torn down.


Preparing to move the home ec building, 06.30.53.
(Courtesy The Herald-Sun Newspaper

The Durham city schools began a slow, slow march to integration by admitting the first African-American students as transfers to Durham High and Carr Junior High in 1959. The process was a transfer policy - in which students could apply for transfer to other schools, but race could supposedly not be used as a deciding factor - rather than a true integration policy. Can you imagine how brave this first handful of students must have been to enter previously all-white schools?

The resistance of the school board to desegregation slowly ebbed over the 1960s, as the trickle of transfers became a stream. Per Jean Anderson, white flight and a sudden proliferation of private/parochial schools pushed the shift even further, such that when court-ordered integration finally occurred in 1970-71, the district's population was majority African-American.

Carr Junior High closed in 1975, and that building became part of Durham High. In 1993, Durham High School ceased to exist as a traditional high school, and in 1995 re-opened as a magnet school, Durham School of the Arts, graduating its first senior class in 2000.


The former Carr Junior High, looking north, 12.09.07. (Photo by Gary Kueber)


The former Durham High School, looking west, 12.09.07. (Photo by Gary Kueber)


Area of Brodie Duke's House, 05.25.08 (Photo by Gary Kueber)


The old gymnasium at the northeast corner of the campus, looking southwest, 12.09.07. (Photo by Gary Kueber)
 

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CITY HIGH SCHOOL / CITY HALL / ARTS COUNCIL

114
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1906
/ Modified in
1924
,
1986
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
Local historic district: 
National Register: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 

The first public high school in the city, this building was altered significantly to become Durham's City Hall in the 1920s, and then again to become a home for the Durham Arts Council in the 1980s.

Comments

  • Submitted by Toby on Saturday, August 13, 2011 - 8:54pm

    Gary - 

    The tour feature is awesome! I think the DCVB, DDI, local realtors would be interested in using this in various promotions of Durham. 

    Toby

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Last updated

  • Sun, 07/15/2012 - 5:54pm by gary

Location

35° 59' 52.0476" N, 78° 54' 12.2544" W

Comments

114
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1906
/ Modified in
1924
,
1986
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
Local historic district: 
National Register: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 

 

The first city high school was built in 1906 on the site of the JL Watkins tobacco prizery, for which no picture is available. The Durham Graded School on Dandy St. (later Jackson St.) no longer could accommodate all grade levels and became the Morehead School, an elementary school, after the construction of the new city high school. Although I don't have documentation that this school was all-white, I am presuming that it was, as I know the schools were segregated after 1922.

cityhighschool.jpeg
Architect's rendering, 1906.
(Courtesy Duke Archives)


The actual building near the completion of construction, looking northeast from Morris St., 1906
(From "Images of America: Durham" by Steve Massengill)

cityhighschool_1910.jpeg
From a postcard, after construction.
(Courtesy Durham County Library)

The school operated at this location until 1922, when a larger high school was built on the former homeplace of Brodie Duke, between Duke, Morgan, and Gregson Streets. (And, at the same time, the original Hillside High School was built on Umstead St.) With the demolition of the New Academy of Music for the Washington Duke Hotel, a new city hall was necessary, as was a new theater. Concomitant with the construction of the Durham Auditorium (now the Carolina theater) in 1926, which was grafted onto this building, the old city high school was remodeled to match the Auditorium architecture (a neoclassical design that removed the dome and original pedimented facade), and became the new city hall.

cityhall_1940.jpeg
City Hall, 1940s.
(Courtesy Durham County Library)


During a city sanitation worker demonstration 02.16.48


Demonstation after the death of Martin Luther King, 04.05.68

As part of the 1950's-era Tarrant plan for 'revitalizing downtown' (yes, this has been going on a really long time), a new civic complex was to be built at Mangum and Chapel Hill Sts. It would be surrounded by plazas as part of a road configuration that would come to be known as 'the Loop'. The area just inside the Loop would be demolished for parking (and Main St. turned into a pedestrian mall.) Included in the soon-to-be parking lots were the old City Hall and the Durham Auditorium.

For once, cooler heads prevailed on a proposed demolition in Durham. The awful edifice now known as city hall was built, and the city government moved out of the building on Morris St.

artscouncil_1978.jpeg
Old City Hall, 1978, after the city government had decamped to parts east.
(Courtesy Durham County Library)

A multitude of visual and performing arts groups had come into being during the post-war era, each individually supporting their own particular medium. The president of the Theatre Guild called a meeting with the principals of the other groups (including The Art Guild, Civic Choral Society, Duke University Arts Council, Chamber Arts Society, and the Durham chapter of the North Carolina Symphony Society) to discuss forming an umbrella organization to provide mutual support in 1953. Their assent was the genesis of United Arts, which became Allied Arts of Durham in 1954. They moved into Harwood Hall on South Duke St. in October, 1954. After Harwood Hall was demolished in 1961, the group moved to the Foushee House, where they were headquartered until the old City Hall became available.


Arts Council, looking east, 1981
(Courtesy Robby Delius)

Along with the construction of the People's Security insurance building in 1986-87, the old city hall building was remodeled with a new, pedimented addition on the front, and some additional glass sheathing on the side.

DurhamCenterConst_1986.jpeg
Under construction, 1987.
(Courtesy Durham County Library)

artscouncil_1986.jpeg
Durham Arts 'Center' 1986.
(Courtesy Durham County Library)

artscouncil_1989_2.jpeg
The completed "Royall Center for the Arts", 1989.
(Courtesy Durham County Library)

artscouncil_2007.jpeg
Arts Council, 2007.

The arts council is a persistent bright spot downtown. From a land use perspective, I think they suffer a bit from a lot of dead space around them - the loop/parking deck to the north, SouthBank to the West, and some surface parking to the south. Even the Carolina Theater, to which it is attached, is oddly separated from it by the service equipment/Loop trek to the north and east, and the blank wall at the end of Manning Place.

I think this building and the Carolina Theater convey the consistent message: good things happen when you decide not to demolish buildings downtown.


10.02.10

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KING'S DAUGHTERS HOME / INN

204
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1925
Architect/Designers: 
,
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
National Register: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 
,

Comments

  • Submitted by Toby on Saturday, August 13, 2011 - 8:54pm

    Gary - 

    The tour feature is awesome! I think the DCVB, DDI, local realtors would be interested in using this in various promotions of Durham. 

    Toby

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In tours

Last updated

  • Mon, 06/25/2012 - 4:58pm by gary

Location

36° 0' 13.4712" N, 78° 54' 43.74" W

Comments

204
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1925
Architect/Designers: 
,
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
National Register: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 
,

 


Second King's Daughters Home, soon after construction (mid-1920s)

---


"Old Ladies' Home", ~1910, looking northeast from Gloria Ave.
(From "Images of America: Durham" by Stephen Massengill

The International Order of the King's Daughters and Sons, per the organization's website, was founded January 13, 1886, as "an organization of Christian men and women dedicated to service in Christ's name [and] the development of spiritual life and the stimulation of Christian activities." A chapter was first organized in Durham in 1890; early efforts (beginning in 1892) included advocacy for the establishment of a hospital for Durham, which would be realized with the construction of Watts Hospital in 1895.

Smoky Hollow - the neighborhood heir of Prattsburg, located in the low ground east of present-day Elizabeth/Holloway St. - had been a source of public hand-wringing for the Durham establishment, particularly from the women of Durham's prominent churches . Much of the concern seemed to focus on delivering the "soiled doves" (i.e. women engaging in prostitution) of Smoky Hollow from their unfortunate fall from grace.

A new chapter (called a "circle") of the King's Daughters was established on January 3, 1903 in the "home of Mrs. MB Wyatt" of Cleveland St.; it would be known as the Sheltering Home Circle. It was comprised of 16 women (two from each of eight churches.) Their immediate concern was to establish a home for the "unprotected girls" of Smoky Hollow. (Which I find interesting and curious, as Smoky Hollow-as-place was obliterated by Julian Carr in 1900-1902 with the construction of Golden Belt and the Durham Hosiery Mill No. 1.) They also established a campaign on July 4, 1903 to provide "ice for the suffering poor" by placing collection boxes in local retail establishments - the first time this later-ubiquitous collection method had been done in Durham. They also established an "Exchange" - wherein the Circle established a shop/store where handicrafts and baked goods could be sold to raise money for the organization.

Not long after the campaign to save the women of Smoky Hollow began, the Sheltering Home Circle changed their plan. Whether they were unable to raise sufficient money for the chosen cause, the problem of Smoky Hollow seemed 'solved', or, as Jean Anderson states - "wiser heads persuaded them that they were not suited for this endeavor" - is unclear. Having changed their choice of charitable aim to the provision of a home for elderly women of meager resources, they found a new patron: Brodie Duke.

The catch-all destination for the impoverished, mentally or physically disabled, or criminal at the turn of the century was the Durham County Poor house. While the aim of the King's Daughters was to provide charity to all of the "unfortunates" of Durham, one can imagine that their sympathies would be particularly triggered by the notion of an elderly "worthy" (to use their term) widow who, due to certain circumstances would find her lot cast with the other residents of the Poor House, who perhaps, in the view of the King's Daughters, did not possess an equivalent moral rectitude.

Brodie Duke, who owned most of the land that would become Trinity Park, found his sympathies so triggered. He donated a 178 x 150 foot piece of land on Guess Road (later Buchanan Blvd.,) facing the Trinity College campus, as well as 0. The frame structure, sketched on a piece of paper by Lucy Lathrop Morehead, transformed into architectural drawings by Durham architect Hill C. Linthicum, and built by contractor John T. Salmon, was completed in 1911 at a cost of 00; it could accommodate 16 residents. Immediately after opening, it housed 5 residents, a cook, and a "matron." It was, in the bluntly descriptive style of the time, referred to as "The Old Ladies' Home."

The cost to residents was for a single room or for a double room. Board, personal care, and laundry service were included. The matron was paid a month; the cook was paid a week. The home cost to run in its first month in operation. Although the home was certainly a charitable endeavor, with the King's Daughters ongoing fund-raising efforts supporting much of the operational cost of the home, it was not charity without expectation; women were (variably) evicted for their inability to pay rent due. However, the King's Daughters lavished what funds they could raise upon the home; in 1913, they purchased a 0 piano for the home - the same amount they spent on all other charitable endeavors that year.

Duke purportedly called the intersecting street at the corner "Gloria" because of the "glory at aiding such a worthy cause." The cause that had been deemed not-as-glorious, shelter for women engaged in prostitution, was taken up by the Salvation Army, who provided such shelter at their building on Morris Street near Five Points.

The home was soon at capacity, and demand for additional rooms was such that the King's Daughters commenced fund-raising activities to build a larger home in 1922. They held an annual bazaar to raise funds; Brodie Duke had died in 1919, but his brothers Ben and Buck gave ,000 to the building committee. Another ,000 was raised from other sources.

In 1925, the organization commissioned a masonry Colonial Revival structure, designed by prominent architectural firm Milburn and Heister, which replaced the older structure. (The younger Milburn, Yancey, likely had a stronger hand in the design and execution than his father Frank, as he had taken residence in Durham during M&H's most prolific years of Durham design.) The old structure was "sold at auction." (I don't know if it was dismantled or moved.) During construction, the home used a "large house at the corner of Duke and Markham" as a temporary home. The new structure, designed to house 36 women and staff, built by CH Shipp's Consolidated Construction Company, opened on January 1, 1926, and had 35 bedrooms, living room, dining room, kitchen, pantry, and an infirmary.


Second King's Daughters Home, soon after construction (mid-1920s)
(Courtesy Duke Rare Book and Manuscript Collection, Chamber of Commerce Collection)

The King's Daughters in Durham remained an active organization throughout the early 20th century, partnering with other organizations such as the Salvation Army, Associated Charities, the Elks, and particularly with the Children's Home Society of Greensboro to provide charity. They adopted a practice of so-called "friendly visiting among the poor" to determine if families with particular needs were "worthy" of assistance. (Worthiness seems to have been judged by whether 'moral transgressions' had contributed to the family's situation.) These visits were often made to the mill communities: West Durham, Edgemont, Commonwealth, and Pearl Mill. The King's Daughters would sometimes, with the help of the Children's Home Society, attempt to remove children from what they felt were unfit and unsafe circumstances for the children, to place them with “good Christian homes.” They also worked with unmarried pregnant women, often very young women, to find homes for them to stay in when they had been rejected from their own. They also took on the difficult task of trying to punish, or at least hold responsible, the men involved; they had worked in the 1890s, successfully, to raise a girl's age of consent from 10 years of age to 14; in 1910, they worked to raise the age of consent to 16, unsuccessfully, and sought to have the county enforce so-called "bastardy laws."

(As a bit of an aside, a second King's Daughter's circle was formed in Durham in 1948, known as the Sara Barker Circle.)

Broadly, the state of social welfare began to change (for the better) over the course of the mid-20th century, with a very gradual destigmatization of many of the circumstances that would have left a woman or a child deemed "unworthy" decades before, and the growth of a more robust county, state, and Federal-provided social service system. The King's Daughters' attention focused more squarely on the operation of the home on Buchanan Blvd.


King's Daughter's Home, 05.01.46
(Courtesy The Herald-Sun Newspaper)


King's Daughter's Home, 05.01.46
(Courtesy The Herald-Sun Newspaper)


King's Daughter's Home, 05.01.46
(Courtesy The Herald-Sun Newspaper)


King's Daughter's Home, 05.01.46
(Courtesy The Herald-Sun Newspaper)

Use of the home continued to grow over the early to mid 20th century, prompting interest in expanding the facility by the 1950s.


King's Daughter's Home, 1950s
(Courtesy The Herald-Sun Newspaper)


King's Daughter's Home, 1950s
(Courtesy The Herald-Sun Newspaper)

In 1955, the Circle built an annex on the north side of the building, designed by architect George Hackney, which provided 12 additional bedrooms, an elevator, and an auditorium. At its peak, the home accommodated 34 women and 9 live-in staff.


King's Daughters Home, 1980

Over the latter half of the 20th century, patterns of care for the elderly changed, though, and, by 2006, only 3 women (and nine staff) remained. The Board made the decision to close the home and decided to sell the property.

It was purchased by Colin and Deanna Crossman in 2007. They began a full renovation of the property, transforming it into "a boutique Bed and Breakfast intended to serve Duke University and the surrounding communities," including, per the Herald-Sun:

[t]he restoration of wood details and windows, plumbing electrical updates, removing layers of Astroturf and other nonhistoric materials. The most dramatic transformation occurred in the front-entry, where a decades-old, two-story firewall was removed and the stairwell restored to its original configuration, based on an early photo and physical evidence. Public spaces were painstakingly preserved, while generally, pairs of rooms were combined to make a single suite with a private bath. To preserve the rhythm of the hallway openings, extra doors were sealed rather than removed. Transoms were fixed to meet code, but hardware was left in place for aesthetic and historic reasons.

In the large unfinished attic, Deanna Colin envisioned a loftlike living space for themselves that celebrated the riveted steel structure of the building. Bedrooms and bathrooms were constructed at each end of the space and an interior stair was extended to provide access to their new living quarters.

As a celebration of the building's history, each suite is named for a former resident or major supporter. Further, a mural was painted along the walls in the 1955 addition as a tribute to the King's Daughters. Thankfully, some furnishings from the original parlor, that had been sold when the residents moved out, were returned after the renovation was complete.

The renovation evidently also added a 10,000 gallon cistern and a rain garden to collect roof storm water run-off.

The newly-christened King's Daughters Inn opened on April 18, 2009, and by all accounts I've heard, it has been a great success.


King's Daughter's Inn, 10.03.09

Find this spot on a Google Map.

36.003742,-78.91215

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/sites/default/files/images/2008_12/lincolnhospital_NE_pcard.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2008_12/Lincoln_1924.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2008_12/lincoln_nurseshome_1924.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2008_12/nurseshome_front.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2008_12/LincolnNursesHomeAnnex_1920.jpg

LINCOLN HOSPITAL - FAYETTEVILLE STREET

1301
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1924
/ Demolished in
1983
Architect/Designers: 
,
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
Local historic district: 
National Register: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 

Comments

  • Submitted by Toby on Saturday, August 13, 2011 - 8:54pm

    Gary - 

    The tour feature is awesome! I think the DCVB, DDI, local realtors would be interested in using this in various promotions of Durham. 

    Toby

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In tours

Last updated

  • Wed, 01/02/2013 - 2:44pm by gary

Location

35° 58' 50.5776" N, 78° 53' 55.536" W

Comments

1301
,
Durham
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1924
/ Demolished in
1983
Architect/Designers: 
,
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
Local historic district: 
National Register: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 

 

The second Lincoln Hospital, 1301 Fayetteville St., 1924.


(Courtesy Durham County Library / North Carolina Collection)

The second incarnation of Lincoln Hospital was located at 1301 Fayetteville St., replacing the earlier structure at the northwest corner of Proctor St. and Cozart St. The hospital had been established at that earlier site primarily through the advocacy of Dr. Aaron Moore. Dr. Moore felt strongly that the African-American community should have their own hospital where African-American physicians and nurses could practice. The institution also included a school of nursing, established in 1905 and provided internship/residency training to physicians.

When the hospital had outgrown the original structure (which suffered a fire in 1922,) a community-wide effort to fund the construction of a new Lincoln Hospital was undertaken. James B. Duke and Ben Duke offered to match ,000 of contributions from other members of the community. John Sprunt Hill and George Watts donated the land at 1301 Fayetteville St., the 4 acre former Stokes Farm (named Stokesdale) - which they had purchased from Alvis H. Stokes in 1917.

A neoclassical structure, designed by Milburn and Heister (architects of city hall, the Carolina Theater, Alexander Ford, Union Station, Durham High School, and the Durham County Courthouse) was completed in 1924 and opened on January 15, 1925. The hospital contained 86 beds.

Dr. Charles Shepard, as superintendent of Lincoln from 1923-1935, and Dr. Stanford Warren as president of the Board of Trustees from 1919-1940, oversaw the transition to the new hospital. They helped modernize standards of care at the hospital, and the acquisition of more up-to-date equipment, such as x-ray technology.

Behind the main hospital building was a "nurses' home". Ben Duke contributed ,000 towards the Nurses' Home; this was combined with funds from Dr. Moore's estate to furnish the rooms and provide equipment for classrooms. Dr. Charles Shepard proposed that the Nurses' Home be named after Angier B. Duke, Ben Duke's son, who had died in 1923.


Nurse's Home, 1924.
(Courtesy Durham County Library / North Carolina Collection)


Looking south from Linwood Ave, 1946.
(From "Durham's Lincoln Hospital" by P. Preston Reynolds)

The nurses' annex was located on Massey Avenue - it appears to have been an earlier frame structure (predating the second hospital) that was adapted for its later use. Given that it was referred to as "Stokes Home", it may have been the main house for the Stokes farm. Per P. Preston Reynolds, it provided housing for preclinical nursing students.


Nurses' Home Annex, facing Massey Ave., mid 1920s.
(Courtesy Durham County Library / North Carolina Collection)


Lincoln from Fayetteville St., 1930s.
(Courtesy Durham County Library / North Carolina Collection)


Looking southeast from Linwood Ave. (It took me a few minutes to visually process those curved window screens when I first looked at this photos. Why would the photo be distorted to make the windows bulge? - was the first inane thought that popped in my head.)
(Courtesy Durham County Library / North Carolina Collection)

Per Dr. Preston Reynolds, in 1940, 5636 patients were seen in the outpatient clinic at Lincoln, and 20,858 days of inpatient hospital care were provided. Surgeons performed 236 major and 1399 minor operations.


Lincoln Hospital, 1949.
(Courtesy Durham County Library / North Carolina Collection)

Below, an aerial shot of Lincoln Hospital in the foreground; WG Pearson Elementary is in the background. The main building, nurses home, and nurses home annex are visible.


Looking north, 1940s.
(Courtesy The Herald-Sun Newspaper)

A joint proposal for Federal funding to expand both Lincoln and Watts Hospitals was submitted to the North Carolina Medical Care Commission in 1950. A local bond measure passed as well, providing 3,700 to Lincoln and .6 million to Watts. Lincoln's funding was matched with 8,700 in Federal funds. This allowed the construction of a new 33 bed wing, completed in 1953. This brought the bed total at Lincoln to 123.


Looking northeast, 1950s
(Courtesy The Herald-Sun Newspaper)

Jean Anderson notes that, by the 1960s, both Lincoln and Watts Hospitals were providing outmoded hospital facilities to Durham. An initial plan to build a new, integrated Watts Hospital was soundly defeated by both Durham whites and African-Americans - by whites due to integration, and by African-Americans due to the loss of Lincoln Hospital.

A multi-racial Hospital Study Committee was set up, which recommended the construction of a new hospital, and the conversion of Lincoln and Watts into extended-care facilities. This initially also met with opposition, but eventually all parties agreed to the need for a new facility, and the measure passed. This would lead to the construction of Durham County General Hospital on the former County Home site on N. Roxboro Road. This facility was renamed Durham Regional Hospital in the 1990s.

Lincoln Community Health Center opened in 1971 with funding from Office of Economic Opportunity and Operation Breakthrough. Its mission was to provide primary health care to citizens of Durham who could not otherwise afford care.


Lincoln Community Health Center, 1971
(From "Durham's Lincoln Hospital" by P. Preston Reynolds)

The health center and the hospital operated together in the Fayetteville St. facility until September 25, 1976, when inpatients were transferred to Durham Regional Hospital.

The community health center continued to operate in the existing facility until 1980.


Lincoln Hospital, 1980.

A new health clinic building was completed in December 1982, built for million. The building was situated at the back of the large lot, behind the existing clinic. Once completed, services were transferred from the old buildings, and they were demolished in February 1983


Demolition of Lincoln Hospital and its 1953 annex, 02.17.83.
(Courtesy The Herald-Sun)

A large surface parking lot in the middle of the block replaced the original hospital.


Looking northeast at the site of Lincoln Hospital, 11.15.08

The Lincoln Community Health Center continues to operate as a community clinic and emergency care center, providing care primarily for citizens without health insurance or who cannot otherwise get care, including adult medicine, pediatric, adolescent, dental, behavioral health, and prenatal care.

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35.980716,-78.89876

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mcpherson_1920s.jpegwattshosp1890.jpeg/sites/default/files/images/2007_1/wattsfloorplan_1900.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2007_1/wattshospital_or_1895.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2007_1/wattshosp1906.jpg

MCPHERSON HOSPITAL / NORTH CAROLINA EYE AND EAR HOSPITAL

1110
,
Durham
NC
Built in
1926
/ Modified in
1940s
,
1968
/ Demolished in
2014
Architect/Designers: 
,
Architectural style: 
,
Construction type: 
National Register: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 

Comments

  • Submitted by Toby on Saturday, August 13, 2011 - 8:54pm

    Gary - 

    The tour feature is awesome! I think the DCVB, DDI, local realtors would be interested in using this in various promotions of Durham. 

    Toby

Add new comment

In tours

Last updated

  • Mon, 07/27/2015 - 3:58pm by gary

Location

United States
36° 0' 6.7248" N, 78° 54' 42.66" W
US

Comments

1110
,
Durham
NC
Built in
1926
/ Modified in
1940s
,
1968
/ Demolished in
2014
Architect/Designers: 
,
Architectural style: 
,
Construction type: 
National Register: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 

 

mcpherson_1920s.jpeg
McPherson hospital, 1920s.

For the first ~40 years of its existence, Durham made do without a hospital. This was not unusual, particularly for a town of Durham's size. Medical care, when available, was provided in the home by visiting physicians.

Dr. Albert G. Carr, brother of Julian Carr became an early proponent for the construction of a hospital in Durham. When his brother and the Duke family brought Trinity College to Durham in 1892, Carr hoped to establish a medical school at the college. With Dr. John Franklin Crowell, president of Trinity College, they devised a plan and curriculum. However, the state medical board and General Assembly would not certify the school.

However, Carr continued to find a receptive ear with his patient George Watts. Watts had experienced 'modern' hospital care in Baltimore - for both himself and his wife, and felt that Durham needed a similar facility.

Watts consulted with AG Carr on the appropriate location for a hospital, and he hired Boston architects Rand and Taylor to design the hospital structures. The firm designed a 'cottage hospital' - very similar to the hospital in Cambridge, MA. Watts chose a four acre site, described as "a barren heath just outside the Town of Durham" at the corner of Guess Road and West Main Street, adjacent to the new location of Trinity College. The hospital opened for business on February 21, 1895 - for men and for women, but for white patients only. Watts donated the hospital to the city that day at a city council meeting at Stokes Hall. The hospital cost ~,000 to build (,732.48 for land and construction, and 25.24 for furnishings.)

wattshosp1890.jpeg
Just after completion - the main administration building and 'surgery' is in the center, flanked by wards on either side that were connected by breezeways. One ward was for women, the other for men.
(Courtesy Durham County Library)


Floor Plan of the hospital
(Courtesy Herald-Sun)


Posed scene in the hospital with George Watts as physician.
(Courtesy Herald-Sun)


View of the hospital with two wards, 1906. Note the tower of the main building of Trinity College at the left edge of the picture.
(Courtesy Duke Archives)

Watts was very concerned with providing charity care, and 19 of the 22 beds at the hospital were to be provided to patients regardless of their ability to pay. Unless they were African-American, of course. Nonetheless, Watts supported the facility, providing a ,000 endowment and ongoing support for operating costs.

Watts also established a nursing school at Watts Hospital, the second to be established in North Carolina. The first class consisted of one person, who graduated in 1897.

Rates for private-pay patients were a week on the large wards, a week for private rooms, and .50 a week for surgical ward beds. The "indigent of Durham County" were not charged.

By 1909, the hospital was insufficient for the growth of Durham, and new facility was built at Club Blvd. and Broad St. (now the NC School of Science and Math) on a 56 acre site chosen by architects Rand and Taylor, away from the "smoke, noise, and trains."

The original hospital administration building and surgery was moved to 302 Watts St., where it was converted to a residence by Dr. NN Johnson, a director of the County Health Department. A remarkably similar structure was built on the site, which became the house of Dr. Hunter Sweaney.

302Watts_1979.jpeg
Original Hospital and administration building at 302 Watts, late 1970s.

In 1913, George Watts constructed the Beverly Apartments (Durham's first apartment building) on the eastern portion of the site (at the corner of Watts and Main St, facing Watts St.) It's reported that it contained 10 5-room apartments. Revenue from the apartments evidently went to supplement the finances of Watts Hospital.
beverlyapartments_pcard_nw_1920ish.jpeg
Taken from the corner of Watts and Main, looking northwest.
(Courtesy Durham County Library)

Trinity Park was developing at this same time. The Sanborn map from 1913 shows the hospital and the apartment building in this block, but no other houses. Morgan Street terminated at Jones St. (now Albemarle) and the blocks between Main and Lamond are developed with sizable residential structures.
WattsMcPherson_1913_0.jpeg
(Copyright Sanborn Company)
Note that Guess Rd. in this picture was later renamed Buchanan Blvd (south of Club) and a slice of Trinity College (now East Campus) was taken to connect this road with Milton Ave (now also Buchanan). This is why there is a bifurcated roadway at Buchanan and Main Sts.

In 1926, Dr. Samuel D. McPherson built an eye, ear, nose, and throat hospital on land between Sweaney's house and the Beverly Apartments.

mcpherson_1920s.jpeg
McPherson hospital, 1920s.

By 1937, the Sanborn maps show the construction of McPherson, and filling in of the residential structures. Morgan has been extended through the block where it previously ended, creating an intersection with Watts and Main.
WattsMcPherson_1937.jpeg

mcpherson_NE_1950s.jpeg
McPherson, with the Beverly Apartments in the background, 1950s.
(Courtesy Herald-Sun)

The hospital took over the Sweaney house at some point, coverterting it to hospital use (I've heard it referred to as the 'nurse's quarters', but I don't know why there would be such a thing at an EENT hospital).


Sweaney House, 05.07.66
(Courtesy Herald-Sun)


Sweaney House from Buchanan Blvd., 05.07.66
(Courtesy Herald-Sun)

The Beverly Apartments were torn down in 1968 to make way for an addition to the hospital.


Looking north, 08.01..68
(Courtesy Herald-Sun)

Many of the houses in the block bounded by Lamond, Watts, Albemarle and Morgan, including the house directly adjacent to the Beverly Apartments, were torn down in that era as well to make way for parking.


McPherson hospital, 1979.

mcpherson_2006_0.jpeg
McPherson hospital building, 2007

beverlysite_2006.jpeg
1969 addition and former site of the Beverly Apartments, 2007.

McPherson hospital became North Carolina Eye and Ear and the North Carolina Specialty Hospital. The hospital moved in stages to the medical disneyland of Independence Park (near Durham Regional in north Durham), completing the move in spring of 2005.

By that time, the site was already under contract with Lou Goetz's Park City Development, who tossed about various ideas about what they might like to do with the site in 2004-2005. A prominent feature in the early discussion was the idea of turning the old McPherson hospital building into a 'boutique hotel' - however that's actually defined. The 1969 addition would be torn down, and the Sweaney house would be... well, it was clearly not part of the plan. The hospital surface parking lot betwen Lamond, Watts, and Morgan would be redeveloped with infill, 'upscale' condominiums.

Trinity Park lobbied Park City to, at a minimum, save the Sweaney house by moving it to another site, which the developer agreed to do.

sweaneydisass_2006.jpeg
The Sweaney House, disassembled prior to moving, 2006.

The Sweaney house was moved to a site across from the Beth-El Synagogue on Watts St. (1005 Watts St.,) where it was reassembled.
sweaneyhouse_2006.jpeg
Sweaney House, 2006)

That left the Main St. site open for development.

wattshospsiteMain_2006.jpeg
Former Watts/McPherson site, 2006.

The development plans initially called for 76 'boutique' hotel rooms on the 'Phase One' (McPherson/Watts Hospital) site and 36 condominiums on the parking lot site.


Here is the site plan that the developers presented to the community in order to garner support for a rezoning.

mcphersonrendering.jpeg

Early rendering of 'Phase One' (hotel) seen from the corner of Watts and Main, looking northwest. (transittime.org)
(Note that this is no longer an accurate rendering of the site, having changed dramatically after the sale detailed below).

chancellorysite_0.jpeg

My version of a 'new' area plan. - the purple arrow connotes the viewing direction of the Phase Two rendering, from somewhere in the air above Lamond and Watts, looking southeast.

Last year, after acheiving support of the neighborhood and the necessary rezoning, Park City sold the 'Phase One' portion of the site to Concord, who increased the number of hotel rooms from 76 to 101 and added a proposed parking deck to the back of the former hospital property. They also changed the language they were using about the hotel from 'boutique' to 'extended-stay'. I think Temporary Quarters was an extended-stay hotel as well, so this doesn't exactly conjure up images that put neighborhood residents at ease. Per some residents, the parking garage will also jut out into the streetscape on Buchanan Blvd. as well, disrupting the line of facades. ( I have not seen a site plan for phase one of the project to confirm this.) The new architecture is a significant departure from the contextual rendering of Phase I above - a suburban, out-of-scale behemoth.

It also bears no resemblance whatsoever to what was presented to the community to gain support for a rezoning.

mcphersonmainelevation.jpeg
From Main St. - notice how the development completely disrespects McPherson Hospital - dominating the scale such that the original building is 'lost'.

mcphersonwattselevation.jpeg
Blank walls at the streetscape level are supposed to be improved by some brick 'recesses'

mcphersonbuchananelevation.jpeg
Hard to tell how this actually interacts with the corner, but it's a jumble of uncoordinated elements.

mcphersonenbhdelevation.jpeg
I admit I don't quite understand what this is supposed to show, but I think it shows the garage from the rear - nice thing to see from your backyard, eh?

Pretty awful architecture - clearly something one would expect down by Southpoint, and a rebuke to the entire context of the neighborhood and the historic hospital building.

More broadly, and with regard to the entire project, I tend to think that the majority of problems that arise in eventually contentious development scenarios result from slippery, misleading, or shifting information that the residents receive from the developer. I believe that a lack of forthright dealing was the major problem in the Central Campus scenario rather than retail per se. It is difficult for a neighborhood to have confidence in a project such as this when, according some of the residents, the developer objects to a development plan because it would be "unncessarily binding" and then, after rezoning, sells the hotel portion of the project to an Applebee's developer, who increases the number of hotel rooms by 1/3 and adds a large parking deck along the back of the property, and then says it will be an 'extended stay hotel' rather than a 'boutique hotel'. No rendering is available to the public - and the elevations aren't easily available. The development changes from an attractive, contextual redendering of a hotel that addresses the entire street and neighborhod to something out of the knee-jerk suburban playbook.

I think the Phase Two portion of the project is an interesting project, and I'm in favor of the higher density - although seven stories is a tall building. It bothers me that the developers present what I consider a disingenuous figure for the density of that portion of the project by utilizing the acreage from this site as well to calculate the residential density. Thus the density is calculated as 20 dwelling units/acre rather than the more accurate 60 (48 on 0.8 acres). I'm not against the density, just presenting numbers that provide a misleading picture. This is a high-density project, not a medium-density project; own up to it and defend it honestly.

How much the changes that occur result from shifting market conditions versus a pre-meditated shift once approvals are in hand, I don't know. But the appearance to the residents is that the developer has been trying to slip something by them all along - which, of course, makes everyone dig in their heels. Padding profit margins through increased neighborhood nuisance is not an acceptable strategy.

As a result of some of the changes that have occurred, there's a mixed reception to this project in Trinity Park (and development changes do always seem to move towards more/bigger buildings, more parking, less amenities). I know that some neighbors plan to oppose the project height and density at a Board of Adjustment hearing this month. Because I believe in the high-density infill development represented by Phase Two, I hope that a compromise can be reached to allow this project to move forward with honest brokering and the minimum nuisance to the neighbors. I know there is a Development Review Board hearing for the Phase One/ hotel portion as well, and I hope that residents manage to sink the project as proposed. Durham deserves better.

Further, I hope this will help spur Trinity Park to do the right thing by seeking local historic district designation. Perhaps with encroachment from the north (destruction of the DC May house on Club Blvd) and the south, the neighborhood residents will see their individual interests in designation, even if they have been unable to see the community interest to this point.

Update 2008:
Construction fencing has gone up, and demolition of the 1968 addition has begun:


Demolition of the 1968 addition, 09.04.08

Update 2009:
The 1969 addition to McPherson Hospital, former site of the Beverly Apartments, has been demolished, and the 1940s era additions to the hospital on the west side of the building have been demolished as well. It has sat this way for a year as of August 2009, so I don't know what has happened to the hotel developer in the broader economic failure.


Watts/McPherson site, looking northeast from Peabody, 10.03.09


Beverly Apartments and former site of the later 1968 addition looking west, 10.03.09 - McPherson stripped of the addition is in the background.

Update 2014:

For all intensive purposes, the McPherson Hospital building has been demolished.

(Courtesy Leon Grodski De Barrera)

I think the pitiful remnant that they are going to attach to the front of their budget motel is ridiculous. I do not know why they bothered - I truly think it's an insult to preservation.

03.31.14

03.31.14 (G. Kueber)

Well, this thing is done, and the best I can say about it is that there's a lot of building built up to the sidewalk. Hurray for urbanism. But it's really best viewed through squinty eyes from about 250 feet away. (Or as far as you can get.)

07.26.15 (G. Kueber)

They don't really even seem to have been able to figure out how to re-case the little shameful chunk of McPherson that they kept. It's all weird copper flashing, no casing, fake muntins. Somebody pass the pepto....

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/sites/default/files/images/2008_1/908Vickers_1970s.jpg/sites/default/files/images/2008_1/908Vickers_01.27.08.jpg1855019_01.jpg1855019_05.jpg1855019_03.jpg

908 VICKERS - YANCEY MILBURN HOUSE

908
,
Durham
NC
Built in
1920-1924
Architect/Designers: 
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
,
,
Local historic district: 
National Register: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 

Comments

  • Submitted by Toby on Saturday, August 13, 2011 - 8:54pm

    Gary - 

    The tour feature is awesome! I think the DCVB, DDI, local realtors would be interested in using this in various promotions of Durham. 

    Toby

Add new comment

In tours

Last updated

  • Sun, 09/23/2012 - 2:49pm by gary

Location

35° 59' 31.9992" N, 78° 54' 43.9524" W

Comments

908
,
Durham
NC
Built in
1920-1924
Architect/Designers: 
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
,
,
Local historic district: 
National Register: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 

 


Looking west, late 1970s.

Yancey Milburn built this Neoclassical Revival house in the early 1920s for himself and his wife. Milburn was the manager and architect for the architecture firm Milburn and Heister, which designed many of Durham's most notable buildings, including the Carolina Theater, the transformation of the old city high school into city hall, Union Station, the Alexander Motor Company, the First National Bank Building, the Durham County Courthouse, and (possibly) Fire Station #1 on Mangum St.

Later occupants included the Lloyd, Leggett, Henry, and Comans families, who added a wing to the rear of the house.


Looking southwest, 01.27.08

1855019_01.jpg

1855019_05.jpg

1855019_03.jpg

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Comments

Gary - 

The tour feature is awesome! I think the DCVB, DDI, local realtors would be interested in using this in various promotions of Durham. 

Toby